Heart failure (HF) is a complex disease that presents a major public health challenge to Western society. The prevalence of HF increases with age in the elderly population, and the societal disease burden will increase with prolongation of life expectancy. HF is initially characterized by an adaptive increase of neurohumoral activation to compensate for reduction of cardiac output. This leads to a combination of neurohumoral activation and mechanical stress in the failing heart that trigger a cascade of maladaptive electrical and structural events that impair both the systolic and diastolic function of the heart.
- Heart failure
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