Efficacy of short-course AZT plus 3TC to reduce nevirapine resistance in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: A randomized clinical trial

James A. McIntyre, Mark Hopley, Daya Moodley, Marie Eklund, Glenda E. Gray, David B. Hall, Patrick Robinson, Douglas Mayers, Neil A. Martinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) - which prevents mother-to-child transmission of HIV - selects non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutations in the majority of women and HIV-infected infants receiving it. This open-label, randomised trial examined the efficacy of short-course zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) with sdNVP in reducing NNRTI resistance in mothers, and as a secondary objective, in infants, in a setting where sdNVP was standard-ofcare. Methods and Findings:sdNVP alone, administered at the onset of labour and to the infant, was compared to sdNVP with AZT plus 3TC, given as combivir (CBV) for 4 (NVP/CBV4) or 7 (NVP/CBV7) days, initiated simultaneously with sdNVP in labour; their newborns received the same regimens. Women were randomised 1:1:1. HIV-1 resistance was assessed by population sequencing at: baseline, 2, and 6 wk after birth. An unplanned interim analysis resulted in early stopping of the sdNVP arm. 406 pregnant women were randomised and took study medication (sdNVP 74, NVP/CBV4 164, and NVP/CBV7 168). HIV-1 resistance mutations emerged in 59.2%, 11.7%, and 7.3% of women in the sdNVP, NVP/CBV4, and NVP/CBV7 arms by 6 wk postpartum; differences between NVP-only and both NVP/CBV arms were significant (p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere1000172
JournalPLoS Medicine
Volume6
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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