Setting: National Tuberculosis Treatment Centre, Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Objective: To assess the efficacy of a daily, self-administered 8-month rifampicin-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults. Design: Treatment outcomes in patients with pulmonary TB treated with a single 8-month regimen and followed in a prospective epidemiological study. Results: Two hundred and sixty-five HIV-infected and 26 non-HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary tuberculosis were treated with 2 months of daily isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol and pyrazinamide followed by 6 months of daily INH + RMP. Median follow-up was 17.8 months. Ninety-five per cent of the HIV-infected and all of the non-HIV-infected patients who had sputum examined were sputum culture negative after 2 months of treatment. Twenty-two HIV-infected and no non-HIV-infected patients died during treatment. Relapse rates were 8.4% (5.9 per 100 person-years of observation [PYO], 95%CI 3.2-8.6) among HIV-infected patients and 4.5% (2.1/100 PYO, 95%CI 0-7.8) for non-HIV-infected patients. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 37% of the HIV-infected patients; most were minor and self-limiting. Conclusion: An 8-month RMP-containing regimen was well tolerated and effective in the treatment of HIV-infected adults with initial episodes of pulmonary TB. Relapse rates were similar to those reported with 6-month short-course regimens in HIV-infected individuals. Decisions about the duration of anti-tuberculosis treatment for HIV-infected adults must balance programme resources and the likelihood of poor compliance with longer regimens with the potential for a modest decrease in relapses with longer treatment.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease|
|State||Published - 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine