We studied the ability of dicloxacillin, a β-lactamase-resistant penicillin, to eradicate persistent group A streptococcl from the upper respiratory tract of children previously given penicillin V, and concomitantly assessed the role of antibiotic (penicillin and dicloxacillin) tolerance as a contributing factor. During a group A streptococcal pharyngitis outbreak, 66% of 324 children were found to be culture positive for group A streptococcl. Ninety percent of these isolates were serotype M-1, T-agglutination pattern T-1. The treatment failure rate after initial orally administered penicllin treatment was 21% (42 of 204). These 42 children then received either a second course of penicillin V orally or a course of dicioxacillin. The resulting rates of failure to eradicate the homologous streptococcal serotype were 83% (20 of 24) and 50% (9 of 18). respectively (P<0.02). Of 189 streptococcal isolates tested by the gradient replicate plate method for penicillin tolerance, 18 (10%) were tolerant. In this study, penicillin-tolerant strains of group A streptococci were no more frequently isolated from childen in whom initial penicillin treatment falled than from those who were successfully treted. Dicloxacillin tolerance was not a factor in failure of dicloxicillin therapy. These data, when evaluated with data from previous studies, suggest that reasons for failure to eradicate group A streptococci from the upper respiratory fract are complex, but dicloxacillin may be beneticial in some patients who fail to respond to orally administered penicillin therapy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health