The behavioral and physiological effects of five tobacco alkaloids were assessed in two different test paradigms. One group of beagle dogs (N = 5) responded under a multiple fixed-interval (FI) 300 sec, fixed-ratio (FR) 30 response schedule of food presentation. With both l-nicotine (0.1-3.0 μmol/kg i.m.) and l-nornicotine (0.1-10.0 μmol/kg i.m.), FI response rates, when averaged across the entire session, were increased at low doses and decreased at high doses; FR response rates were only decreased. d-Nicotine (0.1-30.0 μmol/kg i.m.), and d- and dl-nornicotine (0.1-10.0 μmol/kg i.m.) produced a transient increase in FI response rates at low doses. The effects of the same five compounds on pupillary diameter, rectal temperature and heart rate were measured in a second group of beagle dogs (N = 6). Both pupillary diameter and rectal temperature were decreased initially by l-nicotine (0.6 μmol/kg i.v.), d-nicotine (6.0 μmol/kg i.v.) and d-, l- and dl-nornicotine (3.0 μmol/kg i.v.); base-line levels were recovered within 60 min. Aside from differences in potency, the time courses of action were similar for all five compounds. Increases in heart rate also were produced by all five compounds, but there were marked differences in the duration of action. l-Nicotine and d- and dl-nornicotine produced appreciable, sustained increases in heart rate, whereas d-nicotine and l-nornicotine produced moderate, brief increases. The combined results of the present experiments indicate the stereoisomers of nicotine and nornicotine and behaviorally and physiologically active, and may contribute in varying amounts to the pharmacologic actions of tobacco.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - 1988|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine