Effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet and Sodium Reduction on Blood Pressure in Persons With Diabetes

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Abstract

Elevated blood pressure and blood pressure-related morbidity are extraordinarily common in persons with diabetes. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern and dietary sodium reduction are recommended as lifestyle interventions in individuals with diabetes. However, these recommendations have largely been based on studies conducted in persons without diabetes. In this review, we summarize available evidence from trials that tested the effects of these 2 dietary interventions on blood pressure in people with diabetes. Overall, of the 3 trials (total n=151) that tested the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern in persons with diabetes, 2 trials documented that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern lowered blood pressure. While 16 trials (total n=445) tested the effects of sodium reduction in persons with diabetes, results were inconsistent, likely because of design limitations, for example, brief duration, small sample size, and low baseline blood pressure levels, as well as differences in the mode of intervention delivery (behavioral interventions, feeding studies, and sodium supplements). In conclusion, there is a substantial need for additional research on the blood pressure lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet and sodium reduction in people with diabetes and hypertension, given the high prevalence of hypertension and the dearth of high-quality trials in this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-274
Number of pages10
JournalHypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979)
Volume77
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021

Keywords

  • blood pressure
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  • sodium-restricted diet

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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