Effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on cardiovascular outcomes

Safi U. Khan, Muhammad U. Khan, Haris Riaz, Shahul Valavoor, Di Zhao, Lauren Vaughan, Victor Okunrintemi, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Edo Kaluski, M. Hassan Murad, Michael Blaha, Eliseo Guallar, Erin Donnelly Michos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Background: The role of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions in preventing mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is unclear. Purpose: To examine evidence about the effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception until March 2019; ClinicalTrials.gov (10 March 2019); journal Web sites; and reference lists. Study Selection: English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements or dietary interventions on all-cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes, such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Data Extraction: Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis: Nine systematic reviews and 4 new RCTs were selected that encompassed a total of 277 trials, 24 interventions, and 992 129 participants. A total of 105 meta-analyses were generated. There was moderate-certainty evidence that reduced salt intake decreased the risk for all-cause mortality in normotensive participants (risk ratio [RR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95]) and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive participants (RR, 0.67 [CI, 0.46 to 0.99]). Low-certainty evidence showed that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) was associated with reduced risk for myocardial infarction (RR, 0.92 [CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) and coronary heart disease (RR, 0.93 [CI, 0.89 to 0.98]). Folic acid was associated with lower risk for stroke (RR, 0.80 [CI, 0.67 to 0.96]; low certainty), whereas calcium plus Vitamin D increased the risk for stroke (RR, 1.17 [CI, 1.05 to 1.30]; moderate certainty). Other nutritional supplements, such as vitamin B6, Vitamin A, multivitamins, antioxidants, and iron and dietary interventions, such as reduced fat intake, had no significant effect on mortality or cardiovascular disease outcomes (very low- to moderate-certainty evidence). Limitations: Suboptimal quality and certainty of evidence. Conclusion: Reduced salt intake, omega-3 LC-PUFA use, and folate supplementation could reduce risk for some cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Combined calcium plus Vitamin D might increase risk for stroke.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)190-198
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of internal medicine
Volume171
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 6 2019

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Dietary Supplements
Odds Ratio
Mortality
Stroke
Randomized Controlled Trials
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Folic Acid
Vitamin D
Coronary Disease
Meta-Analysis
Cardiovascular Diseases
Salts
Myocardial Infarction
Dietary Iron
Calcium
Vitamin B 6
Information Storage and Retrieval
Vitamin A
PubMed
Libraries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on cardiovascular outcomes. / Khan, Safi U.; Khan, Muhammad U.; Riaz, Haris; Valavoor, Shahul; Zhao, Di; Vaughan, Lauren; Okunrintemi, Victor; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Kaluski, Edo; Murad, M. Hassan; Blaha, Michael; Guallar, Eliseo; Michos, Erin Donnelly.

In: Annals of internal medicine, Vol. 171, No. 3, 06.08.2019, p. 190-198.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Khan, SU, Khan, MU, Riaz, H, Valavoor, S, Zhao, D, Vaughan, L, Okunrintemi, V, Riaz, IB, Khan, MS, Kaluski, E, Murad, MH, Blaha, M, Guallar, E & Michos, ED 2019, 'Effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on cardiovascular outcomes', Annals of internal medicine, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 190-198. https://doi.org/10.7326/M19-0341
Khan, Safi U. ; Khan, Muhammad U. ; Riaz, Haris ; Valavoor, Shahul ; Zhao, Di ; Vaughan, Lauren ; Okunrintemi, Victor ; Riaz, Irbaz Bin ; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb ; Kaluski, Edo ; Murad, M. Hassan ; Blaha, Michael ; Guallar, Eliseo ; Michos, Erin Donnelly. / Effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on cardiovascular outcomes. In: Annals of internal medicine. 2019 ; Vol. 171, No. 3. pp. 190-198.
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abstract = "Background: The role of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions in preventing mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is unclear. Purpose: To examine evidence about the effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception until March 2019; ClinicalTrials.gov (10 March 2019); journal Web sites; and reference lists. Study Selection: English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements or dietary interventions on all-cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes, such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Data Extraction: Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis: Nine systematic reviews and 4 new RCTs were selected that encompassed a total of 277 trials, 24 interventions, and 992 129 participants. A total of 105 meta-analyses were generated. There was moderate-certainty evidence that reduced salt intake decreased the risk for all-cause mortality in normotensive participants (risk ratio [RR], 0.90 [95{\%} CI, 0.85 to 0.95]) and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive participants (RR, 0.67 [CI, 0.46 to 0.99]). Low-certainty evidence showed that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) was associated with reduced risk for myocardial infarction (RR, 0.92 [CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) and coronary heart disease (RR, 0.93 [CI, 0.89 to 0.98]). Folic acid was associated with lower risk for stroke (RR, 0.80 [CI, 0.67 to 0.96]; low certainty), whereas calcium plus Vitamin D increased the risk for stroke (RR, 1.17 [CI, 1.05 to 1.30]; moderate certainty). Other nutritional supplements, such as vitamin B6, Vitamin A, multivitamins, antioxidants, and iron and dietary interventions, such as reduced fat intake, had no significant effect on mortality or cardiovascular disease outcomes (very low- to moderate-certainty evidence). Limitations: Suboptimal quality and certainty of evidence. Conclusion: Reduced salt intake, omega-3 LC-PUFA use, and folate supplementation could reduce risk for some cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Combined calcium plus Vitamin D might increase risk for stroke.",
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T1 - Effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on cardiovascular outcomes

AU - Khan, Safi U.

AU - Khan, Muhammad U.

AU - Riaz, Haris

AU - Valavoor, Shahul

AU - Zhao, Di

AU - Vaughan, Lauren

AU - Okunrintemi, Victor

AU - Riaz, Irbaz Bin

AU - Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb

AU - Kaluski, Edo

AU - Murad, M. Hassan

AU - Blaha, Michael

AU - Guallar, Eliseo

AU - Michos, Erin Donnelly

PY - 2019/8/6

Y1 - 2019/8/6

N2 - Background: The role of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions in preventing mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is unclear. Purpose: To examine evidence about the effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception until March 2019; ClinicalTrials.gov (10 March 2019); journal Web sites; and reference lists. Study Selection: English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements or dietary interventions on all-cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes, such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Data Extraction: Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis: Nine systematic reviews and 4 new RCTs were selected that encompassed a total of 277 trials, 24 interventions, and 992 129 participants. A total of 105 meta-analyses were generated. There was moderate-certainty evidence that reduced salt intake decreased the risk for all-cause mortality in normotensive participants (risk ratio [RR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95]) and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive participants (RR, 0.67 [CI, 0.46 to 0.99]). Low-certainty evidence showed that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) was associated with reduced risk for myocardial infarction (RR, 0.92 [CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) and coronary heart disease (RR, 0.93 [CI, 0.89 to 0.98]). Folic acid was associated with lower risk for stroke (RR, 0.80 [CI, 0.67 to 0.96]; low certainty), whereas calcium plus Vitamin D increased the risk for stroke (RR, 1.17 [CI, 1.05 to 1.30]; moderate certainty). Other nutritional supplements, such as vitamin B6, Vitamin A, multivitamins, antioxidants, and iron and dietary interventions, such as reduced fat intake, had no significant effect on mortality or cardiovascular disease outcomes (very low- to moderate-certainty evidence). Limitations: Suboptimal quality and certainty of evidence. Conclusion: Reduced salt intake, omega-3 LC-PUFA use, and folate supplementation could reduce risk for some cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Combined calcium plus Vitamin D might increase risk for stroke.

AB - Background: The role of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions in preventing mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is unclear. Purpose: To examine evidence about the effects of nutritional supplements and dietary interventions on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Data Sources: PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from inception until March 2019; ClinicalTrials.gov (10 March 2019); journal Web sites; and reference lists. Study Selection: English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs that assessed the effects of nutritional supplements or dietary interventions on all-cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes, such as death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Data Extraction: Two independent investigators abstracted data, assessed the quality of evidence, and rated the certainty of evidence. Data Synthesis: Nine systematic reviews and 4 new RCTs were selected that encompassed a total of 277 trials, 24 interventions, and 992 129 participants. A total of 105 meta-analyses were generated. There was moderate-certainty evidence that reduced salt intake decreased the risk for all-cause mortality in normotensive participants (risk ratio [RR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.95]) and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive participants (RR, 0.67 [CI, 0.46 to 0.99]). Low-certainty evidence showed that omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) was associated with reduced risk for myocardial infarction (RR, 0.92 [CI, 0.85 to 0.99]) and coronary heart disease (RR, 0.93 [CI, 0.89 to 0.98]). Folic acid was associated with lower risk for stroke (RR, 0.80 [CI, 0.67 to 0.96]; low certainty), whereas calcium plus Vitamin D increased the risk for stroke (RR, 1.17 [CI, 1.05 to 1.30]; moderate certainty). Other nutritional supplements, such as vitamin B6, Vitamin A, multivitamins, antioxidants, and iron and dietary interventions, such as reduced fat intake, had no significant effect on mortality or cardiovascular disease outcomes (very low- to moderate-certainty evidence). Limitations: Suboptimal quality and certainty of evidence. Conclusion: Reduced salt intake, omega-3 LC-PUFA use, and folate supplementation could reduce risk for some cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Combined calcium plus Vitamin D might increase risk for stroke.

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