Effects of nicotine, cocaine and some of their metabolites on schedule-controlled responding by beagle dogs and squirrel monkeys

M. E. Risner, S. R. Goldberg, J. A. Prada, E. J. Cone

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The behavioral effects of nicotine were compared with those of its metabolites, nornicotine and cotinine, in beagle dogs and squirrel monkeys. Subjects responded under a multiple fixed-interval (FI) 300-sec, fixed-ratio (FR) 30 response schedule of food presentation. Nicotine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg i.m.) and nornicotine (0.03-3.0 mg/kg i.m.) produced qualitatively similar effects in both dogs and monkeys. Nicotine produced dose-related increases, then decreases in rates of responding during FI components; rates of responding during FR components were only decreased. Nornicotine produced only dose-dependent decreases in responding during both FI and FR components. In the dogs, cotinine (0.01-10.0 mg/kg i.m.) produced only dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding during both FI and FR components. In the squirrel monkeys, however, cotinine (0.1-3.0 mg/kg i.m.) increased responding during FI components; a high dose of 30.0 mg/kg decreased responding during both FI and FR components. The behavioral effects of cocaine (0.03-3.0 mg/kg i.m.) and its metabolite norcocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg i.m.) were compared in the dogs. FI rates of responding first increased and then decreased with increasing doses of each drug, whereas FR rates of responding only decreased in a dose-related manner. Norcocaine was slightly more potent than cocaine in producing these effects on schedule-controlled responding in dogs. These experiments indicate the metabolites of nicotine and cocaine are behaviorally active and may contribute to the pharmacological profile of the parent compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-119
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1985


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

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