Brain protection during open heart surgery in the neonate and infant remains inadequate. Effects of the excitatory neurotransmitter antagonists MK-801 and NBQX on recovery of brain cellular energy state and metabolic rates were evaluated in 34 4-week-old piglets (10 MK-801, 10 NBQX, 14 controls) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest at 15°C nasopharyngeal temperature for 1 h, as is used clinically for repair of congenital heart defects. MK-801 (dizocilpine) (0.75 mg/kg) or NBQX [2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(F)quinoxaline] (25 mg/kg) was given intravenously before cardiopulmonary bypass. Equivalent doses were placed in the cardiopulmonary bypass prime plus continuous infusions after reperfusion (0.15 mg kg-1h-1 and 5 mg kg-1h-1). Changes in high-energy phosphate concentrations and pH were analyzed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 17 animals until 225 min after reperfusion. Cerebral blood flow determined by radioactive microspheres as well as cerebral oxygen and glucose consumption were studied in 17 other animals. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption were depressed relative to control by both MK-801 and NBQX at baseline. Recovery of phosphocreatine (p = 0.010), ATP (p = 0.030), and intracellular pH (p = 0.004) was accelerated by MK-801 and retarded by NBQX over the 45 min of rewarming reperfusion and the first hour of normothermic reperfusion. The final recovery of ATP at 3 h and 45 min reperfusion was significantly reduced by NBQX (46 ± 26% baseline, mean ± SD) versus control (81 ± 19%) and MK- 801 (75 ± 8%) (p = 0.030). Cerebral oxygen consumption recovered to 105 ± 30% baseline in group MK-801 and 94 ± 31% in control but only to 61 ± 22% in group NBQX (p = 0.070). Cerebral blood flow stayed significantly lower in group NBQX relative to control. Thus, MK-801 accelerates recovery of cerebral high-energy phosphates and metabolic rate after cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest in the immature animal. At the dosage used NBQX exerts an adverse effect.
- Excitatory neurotransmitter antagonist
- Heart surgery
- Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine