Chick embryos at 72 h incubation were subjected to three double shock waves from a Wolf Model 2137.50 Electrohydraulic Lithotripter. The pressure amplitude at the embryo was adjusted by variation of the distance from the source to the embryo. After a total of 120 h of incubation, they were assessed for developmental abnormalities. Early deaths, delayed deaths and malformations were all significantly increased at pressures of 10 MPa with suggestions of possible effects at lower pressure levels.
- Chick embryos
- Embryonic death and malformation
- Lithotripter fields
- Shock waves
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics