Effects of halothane, propofol, and thiopental on peripheral airway reactivity

E. H. Mehr, Karen Sue Lindeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: General anesthetics modify airway responsiveness by several mechanisms, including direct effects on airway smooth muscle and reductions in neural reflex activity. Halothane has been shown to reduce responsiveness through both of these mechanisms. The airway effects of barbiturates are controversial, and the effects of propofol are unknown. Methods: To compare the direct effects of halothane, thiopental, and propofol in vivo, canine peripheral airways were constricted with two stimuli, histamine and hypocapnia, which are thought to directly contract smooth muscle. The authors then investigated the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels as a mechanism for attenuating these responses. Basenji-Greyhound (BG) dogs were anesthetized with either halothane (1.5 MAC), thiopental (7.5 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously) plus fentanyl (25 μg intravenously every 20-30 min), or propofol (0.6 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously). A wedged bronchoscope technique was used to measure peripheral airway resistance (R(p)). After a stable baseline was obtained, dose-response curves to histamine (50, 100, or 200 μg intravenous bolus) or hypocapnia (0% CO2 for 2 min with 100, 200, or 400 ml/min collateral flow) were constructed. On separate occasions, the same sublobar segments were pretreated with glibenclamide (2 mg/ml aerosol), a K(ATP) channel blocker, and dose-response curves to hypocapnia were repeated. Results: Dose-response curves to histamine were similar during all three anesthetics. Halothane decreased airway responsiveness to hypocapnia, compared with either thiopental or propofol (P <0.05). Pretreatment with glibenclamide abolished the effect of halothane on hypocapnia-induced airway constriction. Conclusions: These results indicate that propofol afforded no benefit over thiopental or halothane in reducing peripheral airway responsiveness. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of halothane in reducing responsiveness to hypocapnia appear to be mediated by the opening of K(ATP) channels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)290-298
Number of pages9
JournalAnesthesiology
Volume79
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1993

Fingerprint

Thiopental
Hypocapnia
Propofol
Halothane
Histamine
Glyburide
Adenosine Triphosphate
Smooth Muscle
Bronchoscopes
KATP Channels
General Anesthetics
Barbiturates
Airway Resistance
Fentanyl
Aerosols
Constriction
Vascular Resistance
Reflex
Anesthetics
Canidae

Keywords

  • Anesthetics, intravenous: propofol; thiopental
  • Anesthetics, volatile: halothane
  • Lungs: bronchoconstriction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Effects of halothane, propofol, and thiopental on peripheral airway reactivity. / Mehr, E. H.; Lindeman, Karen Sue.

In: Anesthesiology, Vol. 79, No. 2, 1993, p. 290-298.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{765b0265d57346f3833d4adb78d1f147,
title = "Effects of halothane, propofol, and thiopental on peripheral airway reactivity",
abstract = "Background: General anesthetics modify airway responsiveness by several mechanisms, including direct effects on airway smooth muscle and reductions in neural reflex activity. Halothane has been shown to reduce responsiveness through both of these mechanisms. The airway effects of barbiturates are controversial, and the effects of propofol are unknown. Methods: To compare the direct effects of halothane, thiopental, and propofol in vivo, canine peripheral airways were constricted with two stimuli, histamine and hypocapnia, which are thought to directly contract smooth muscle. The authors then investigated the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels as a mechanism for attenuating these responses. Basenji-Greyhound (BG) dogs were anesthetized with either halothane (1.5 MAC), thiopental (7.5 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously) plus fentanyl (25 μg intravenously every 20-30 min), or propofol (0.6 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously). A wedged bronchoscope technique was used to measure peripheral airway resistance (R(p)). After a stable baseline was obtained, dose-response curves to histamine (50, 100, or 200 μg intravenous bolus) or hypocapnia (0{\%} CO2 for 2 min with 100, 200, or 400 ml/min collateral flow) were constructed. On separate occasions, the same sublobar segments were pretreated with glibenclamide (2 mg/ml aerosol), a K(ATP) channel blocker, and dose-response curves to hypocapnia were repeated. Results: Dose-response curves to histamine were similar during all three anesthetics. Halothane decreased airway responsiveness to hypocapnia, compared with either thiopental or propofol (P <0.05). Pretreatment with glibenclamide abolished the effect of halothane on hypocapnia-induced airway constriction. Conclusions: These results indicate that propofol afforded no benefit over thiopental or halothane in reducing peripheral airway responsiveness. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of halothane in reducing responsiveness to hypocapnia appear to be mediated by the opening of K(ATP) channels.",
keywords = "Anesthetics, intravenous: propofol; thiopental, Anesthetics, volatile: halothane, Lungs: bronchoconstriction",
author = "Mehr, {E. H.} and Lindeman, {Karen Sue}",
year = "1993",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "79",
pages = "290--298",
journal = "Anesthesiology",
issn = "0003-3022",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of halothane, propofol, and thiopental on peripheral airway reactivity

AU - Mehr, E. H.

AU - Lindeman, Karen Sue

PY - 1993

Y1 - 1993

N2 - Background: General anesthetics modify airway responsiveness by several mechanisms, including direct effects on airway smooth muscle and reductions in neural reflex activity. Halothane has been shown to reduce responsiveness through both of these mechanisms. The airway effects of barbiturates are controversial, and the effects of propofol are unknown. Methods: To compare the direct effects of halothane, thiopental, and propofol in vivo, canine peripheral airways were constricted with two stimuli, histamine and hypocapnia, which are thought to directly contract smooth muscle. The authors then investigated the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels as a mechanism for attenuating these responses. Basenji-Greyhound (BG) dogs were anesthetized with either halothane (1.5 MAC), thiopental (7.5 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously) plus fentanyl (25 μg intravenously every 20-30 min), or propofol (0.6 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously). A wedged bronchoscope technique was used to measure peripheral airway resistance (R(p)). After a stable baseline was obtained, dose-response curves to histamine (50, 100, or 200 μg intravenous bolus) or hypocapnia (0% CO2 for 2 min with 100, 200, or 400 ml/min collateral flow) were constructed. On separate occasions, the same sublobar segments were pretreated with glibenclamide (2 mg/ml aerosol), a K(ATP) channel blocker, and dose-response curves to hypocapnia were repeated. Results: Dose-response curves to histamine were similar during all three anesthetics. Halothane decreased airway responsiveness to hypocapnia, compared with either thiopental or propofol (P <0.05). Pretreatment with glibenclamide abolished the effect of halothane on hypocapnia-induced airway constriction. Conclusions: These results indicate that propofol afforded no benefit over thiopental or halothane in reducing peripheral airway responsiveness. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of halothane in reducing responsiveness to hypocapnia appear to be mediated by the opening of K(ATP) channels.

AB - Background: General anesthetics modify airway responsiveness by several mechanisms, including direct effects on airway smooth muscle and reductions in neural reflex activity. Halothane has been shown to reduce responsiveness through both of these mechanisms. The airway effects of barbiturates are controversial, and the effects of propofol are unknown. Methods: To compare the direct effects of halothane, thiopental, and propofol in vivo, canine peripheral airways were constricted with two stimuli, histamine and hypocapnia, which are thought to directly contract smooth muscle. The authors then investigated the role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels as a mechanism for attenuating these responses. Basenji-Greyhound (BG) dogs were anesthetized with either halothane (1.5 MAC), thiopental (7.5 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously) plus fentanyl (25 μg intravenously every 20-30 min), or propofol (0.6 mg · kg-1 · min-1 intravenously). A wedged bronchoscope technique was used to measure peripheral airway resistance (R(p)). After a stable baseline was obtained, dose-response curves to histamine (50, 100, or 200 μg intravenous bolus) or hypocapnia (0% CO2 for 2 min with 100, 200, or 400 ml/min collateral flow) were constructed. On separate occasions, the same sublobar segments were pretreated with glibenclamide (2 mg/ml aerosol), a K(ATP) channel blocker, and dose-response curves to hypocapnia were repeated. Results: Dose-response curves to histamine were similar during all three anesthetics. Halothane decreased airway responsiveness to hypocapnia, compared with either thiopental or propofol (P <0.05). Pretreatment with glibenclamide abolished the effect of halothane on hypocapnia-induced airway constriction. Conclusions: These results indicate that propofol afforded no benefit over thiopental or halothane in reducing peripheral airway responsiveness. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of halothane in reducing responsiveness to hypocapnia appear to be mediated by the opening of K(ATP) channels.

KW - Anesthetics, intravenous: propofol; thiopental

KW - Anesthetics, volatile: halothane

KW - Lungs: bronchoconstriction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027177761&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027177761&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8342840

AN - SCOPUS:0027177761

VL - 79

SP - 290

EP - 298

JO - Anesthesiology

JF - Anesthesiology

SN - 0003-3022

IS - 2

ER -