Objective: To examine post-orchiectomy specimens of transgender individuals to better understand the reproductive implications of hormonal therapy and to look for potential malignant or premalignant changes. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on the orchiectomy specimens from 135 TG individuals who underwent bilateral simple orchiectomy (54) or vaginoplasty with combined orchiectomy (81) at a single institution from 2014-2017. Factors examined included microscopic evidence of spermatogenesis, weight of specimens, evidence of malignant or premalignant changes, and patient demographic information. Results: Four percent (6/135) of all orchiectomy specimens had normal spermatogenesis in both testicles. Twenty-one percent (28/135) demonstrated some stage of spermatogenesis, of which 61% (17/28) were in maturational arrest. The median patient age at surgery was 30 years (range 18-76). Median overall testicle weight was 24 g (range 10.4-71.1), compared with 24 g (range 10-71g) in testicles without evidence of spermatogenesis and 26 g (range 17.9-40.9) in testicles with normal spermatogenesis. None of the specimens demonstrated premalignant or malignant changes. Conclusion: Up to 21% of individuals undergoing a gender affirming surgery had microscopic evidence of spermatogenesis in varying stages. Furthermore, 4% of individuals had normal spermatogenesis. None of the specimens had malignant or premalignant changes. These findings may have implications for counseling transgender individuals on sexual and reproductive health and highlight the need for further research in this sector.
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