Effects of dietary carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol in a population without diabetes: Results from the OmniCarb trial

S. P. Juraschek, Edgar R Miller, Lawrence Appel, R. H. Christenson, F. M. Sacks, Elizabeth Selvin

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the effects of dietary changes in amount and type of carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. Methods: We conducted an ancillary study to a completed, randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese adults without diabetes (N=159). Using a crossover design, participants were fed each one of four diets in turn for 5 weeks, with 2-week washout periods inbetween. The four diets were: high glycaemic index (≥65) with high proportion of carbohydrate (58% kcal) (GC); low glycaemic index (GI≤45) with low proportion of carbohydrate (40% kcal) (gc); low glycaemic index with high proportion of carbohydrate (gC); and high glycaemic index with low proportion of carbohydrate (Gc). Plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were measured at baseline and after each feeding period. Results: At baseline, participants had a mean age of 53 years (53% women, 52% non-Hispanic black, 50% obese). Their mean fasting glucose and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were 97 mg/dl (5.4 mmol/l) and 18.6 μg/mL (113.3 μmol/l), respectively. Compared with baseline, each of the four diets reduced 1,5-anhydroglucitol by a range of -2.4 to -3.7 μg/mL (-14.6 to -22.5 μmol/l); all P <0.001). Reducing either glycaemic index or proportion of carbohydrate lowered 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. These effects were additive, such that reducing both glycaemic index and proportion of carbohydrates decreased 1,5-anhydroglucitol by -1.31 μg/mL [95% CI: -1.63, -0.99; P<0.001 or -8.0 (-9.9, -6.0) μmol/l]. Furthermore, these effects were confirmed in a subgroup of participants with 12-h glucose monitoring and no documented hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose <160 mg/dl or 8.9 mmol/l). Conclusions: Both type and amount of dietary carbohydrate affect 1,5-anhydroglucitol plasma concentrations in adults without diabetes. This finding contradicts the long-standing notion that 1,5-anhydroglucitol remains at constant concentrations in the blood in the absence of hyperglycaemic excursions. (Clinical trials registry number: NCT00051350)

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDiabetic Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2017

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Dietary Carbohydrates
Glycemic Index
Carbohydrates
Population
Diet
Glucose
Fasting
1,5-anhydroglucitol
Hyperglycemia
Cross-Over Studies
Registries
Randomized Controlled Trials
Clinical Trials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

@article{d93cf10cbe144394ba400e3dc60bf637,
title = "Effects of dietary carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol in a population without diabetes: Results from the OmniCarb trial",
abstract = "Aims: To determine the effects of dietary changes in amount and type of carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. Methods: We conducted an ancillary study to a completed, randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese adults without diabetes (N=159). Using a crossover design, participants were fed each one of four diets in turn for 5 weeks, with 2-week washout periods inbetween. The four diets were: high glycaemic index (≥65) with high proportion of carbohydrate (58{\%} kcal) (GC); low glycaemic index (GI≤45) with low proportion of carbohydrate (40{\%} kcal) (gc); low glycaemic index with high proportion of carbohydrate (gC); and high glycaemic index with low proportion of carbohydrate (Gc). Plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were measured at baseline and after each feeding period. Results: At baseline, participants had a mean age of 53 years (53{\%} women, 52{\%} non-Hispanic black, 50{\%} obese). Their mean fasting glucose and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were 97 mg/dl (5.4 mmol/l) and 18.6 μg/mL (113.3 μmol/l), respectively. Compared with baseline, each of the four diets reduced 1,5-anhydroglucitol by a range of -2.4 to -3.7 μg/mL (-14.6 to -22.5 μmol/l); all P <0.001). Reducing either glycaemic index or proportion of carbohydrate lowered 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. These effects were additive, such that reducing both glycaemic index and proportion of carbohydrates decreased 1,5-anhydroglucitol by -1.31 μg/mL [95{\%} CI: -1.63, -0.99; P<0.001 or -8.0 (-9.9, -6.0) μmol/l]. Furthermore, these effects were confirmed in a subgroup of participants with 12-h glucose monitoring and no documented hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose <160 mg/dl or 8.9 mmol/l). Conclusions: Both type and amount of dietary carbohydrate affect 1,5-anhydroglucitol plasma concentrations in adults without diabetes. This finding contradicts the long-standing notion that 1,5-anhydroglucitol remains at constant concentrations in the blood in the absence of hyperglycaemic excursions. (Clinical trials registry number: NCT00051350)",
author = "Juraschek, {S. P.} and Miller, {Edgar R} and Lawrence Appel and Christenson, {R. H.} and Sacks, {F. M.} and Elizabeth Selvin",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1111/dme.13391",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "Diabetic Medicine",
issn = "0742-3071",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of dietary carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol in a population without diabetes

T2 - Results from the OmniCarb trial

AU - Juraschek, S. P.

AU - Miller, Edgar R

AU - Appel, Lawrence

AU - Christenson, R. H.

AU - Sacks, F. M.

AU - Selvin, Elizabeth

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Aims: To determine the effects of dietary changes in amount and type of carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. Methods: We conducted an ancillary study to a completed, randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese adults without diabetes (N=159). Using a crossover design, participants were fed each one of four diets in turn for 5 weeks, with 2-week washout periods inbetween. The four diets were: high glycaemic index (≥65) with high proportion of carbohydrate (58% kcal) (GC); low glycaemic index (GI≤45) with low proportion of carbohydrate (40% kcal) (gc); low glycaemic index with high proportion of carbohydrate (gC); and high glycaemic index with low proportion of carbohydrate (Gc). Plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were measured at baseline and after each feeding period. Results: At baseline, participants had a mean age of 53 years (53% women, 52% non-Hispanic black, 50% obese). Their mean fasting glucose and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were 97 mg/dl (5.4 mmol/l) and 18.6 μg/mL (113.3 μmol/l), respectively. Compared with baseline, each of the four diets reduced 1,5-anhydroglucitol by a range of -2.4 to -3.7 μg/mL (-14.6 to -22.5 μmol/l); all P <0.001). Reducing either glycaemic index or proportion of carbohydrate lowered 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. These effects were additive, such that reducing both glycaemic index and proportion of carbohydrates decreased 1,5-anhydroglucitol by -1.31 μg/mL [95% CI: -1.63, -0.99; P<0.001 or -8.0 (-9.9, -6.0) μmol/l]. Furthermore, these effects were confirmed in a subgroup of participants with 12-h glucose monitoring and no documented hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose <160 mg/dl or 8.9 mmol/l). Conclusions: Both type and amount of dietary carbohydrate affect 1,5-anhydroglucitol plasma concentrations in adults without diabetes. This finding contradicts the long-standing notion that 1,5-anhydroglucitol remains at constant concentrations in the blood in the absence of hyperglycaemic excursions. (Clinical trials registry number: NCT00051350)

AB - Aims: To determine the effects of dietary changes in amount and type of carbohydrate on 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. Methods: We conducted an ancillary study to a completed, randomized clinical trial in overweight and obese adults without diabetes (N=159). Using a crossover design, participants were fed each one of four diets in turn for 5 weeks, with 2-week washout periods inbetween. The four diets were: high glycaemic index (≥65) with high proportion of carbohydrate (58% kcal) (GC); low glycaemic index (GI≤45) with low proportion of carbohydrate (40% kcal) (gc); low glycaemic index with high proportion of carbohydrate (gC); and high glycaemic index with low proportion of carbohydrate (Gc). Plasma 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were measured at baseline and after each feeding period. Results: At baseline, participants had a mean age of 53 years (53% women, 52% non-Hispanic black, 50% obese). Their mean fasting glucose and 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels were 97 mg/dl (5.4 mmol/l) and 18.6 μg/mL (113.3 μmol/l), respectively. Compared with baseline, each of the four diets reduced 1,5-anhydroglucitol by a range of -2.4 to -3.7 μg/mL (-14.6 to -22.5 μmol/l); all P <0.001). Reducing either glycaemic index or proportion of carbohydrate lowered 1,5-anhydroglucitol levels. These effects were additive, such that reducing both glycaemic index and proportion of carbohydrates decreased 1,5-anhydroglucitol by -1.31 μg/mL [95% CI: -1.63, -0.99; P<0.001 or -8.0 (-9.9, -6.0) μmol/l]. Furthermore, these effects were confirmed in a subgroup of participants with 12-h glucose monitoring and no documented hyperglycaemia (fasting glucose <160 mg/dl or 8.9 mmol/l). Conclusions: Both type and amount of dietary carbohydrate affect 1,5-anhydroglucitol plasma concentrations in adults without diabetes. This finding contradicts the long-standing notion that 1,5-anhydroglucitol remains at constant concentrations in the blood in the absence of hyperglycaemic excursions. (Clinical trials registry number: NCT00051350)

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