Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke

J. Brigham, J. Gross, Maxine L Stitzer, L. J. Felch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives. This study evaluated the biological and subjective consequences observed in individual smokers after implementation of a workplace smoking-restriction policy. Methods. Employees were evaluated for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after their workplace became smoke-free (n = 34). A comparison group of smokers whose work-site smoking was unrestricted served as controls (n = 33). Daily exposure to tobacco constituents and withdrawal effects were measured. Results. Smokers at the restricted site had verified smoking reduction (mean = four cigarettes per day) and significantly reduced nicotine and carbon monoxide during the work shift. There were increases in ratings of some common withdrawal symptoms (cravings/urges, concentration difficulties, increased eating, depression). No evidence of compensatory smoking during nonwork hours was found. Overall tobacco exposure, as measured in saliva cotinine, showed a nonsignificant 15% decline. Conclusions. Workplace smoking restriction markedly altered smoking patterns (i.e., reduced daytime smoking) and reduced cotinine levels to an amount consistent with cigarette reduction. Thus, work-site smoking restriction may promote meaningful, albeit limited, reductions in tobacco exposure and consequent health risks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)773-778
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Public Health
Volume84
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1994

Fingerprint

Smoke
Workplace
Smoking
Tobacco
Cotinine
Tobacco Products
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Carbon Monoxide
Nicotine
Saliva
Eating
Depression
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke. / Brigham, J.; Gross, J.; Stitzer, Maxine L; Felch, L. J.

In: American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 84, No. 5, 1994, p. 773-778.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Brigham, J. ; Gross, J. ; Stitzer, Maxine L ; Felch, L. J. / Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke. In: American Journal of Public Health. 1994 ; Vol. 84, No. 5. pp. 773-778.
@article{d695a1eb381a436493206a43ea8487b3,
title = "Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke",
abstract = "Objectives. This study evaluated the biological and subjective consequences observed in individual smokers after implementation of a workplace smoking-restriction policy. Methods. Employees were evaluated for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after their workplace became smoke-free (n = 34). A comparison group of smokers whose work-site smoking was unrestricted served as controls (n = 33). Daily exposure to tobacco constituents and withdrawal effects were measured. Results. Smokers at the restricted site had verified smoking reduction (mean = four cigarettes per day) and significantly reduced nicotine and carbon monoxide during the work shift. There were increases in ratings of some common withdrawal symptoms (cravings/urges, concentration difficulties, increased eating, depression). No evidence of compensatory smoking during nonwork hours was found. Overall tobacco exposure, as measured in saliva cotinine, showed a nonsignificant 15{\%} decline. Conclusions. Workplace smoking restriction markedly altered smoking patterns (i.e., reduced daytime smoking) and reduced cotinine levels to an amount consistent with cigarette reduction. Thus, work-site smoking restriction may promote meaningful, albeit limited, reductions in tobacco exposure and consequent health risks.",
author = "J. Brigham and J. Gross and Stitzer, {Maxine L} and Felch, {L. J.}",
year = "1994",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "84",
pages = "773--778",
journal = "American Journal of Public Health",
issn = "0090-0036",
publisher = "American Public Health Association Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of a restricted work-site smoking policy on employees who smoke

AU - Brigham, J.

AU - Gross, J.

AU - Stitzer, Maxine L

AU - Felch, L. J.

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - Objectives. This study evaluated the biological and subjective consequences observed in individual smokers after implementation of a workplace smoking-restriction policy. Methods. Employees were evaluated for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after their workplace became smoke-free (n = 34). A comparison group of smokers whose work-site smoking was unrestricted served as controls (n = 33). Daily exposure to tobacco constituents and withdrawal effects were measured. Results. Smokers at the restricted site had verified smoking reduction (mean = four cigarettes per day) and significantly reduced nicotine and carbon monoxide during the work shift. There were increases in ratings of some common withdrawal symptoms (cravings/urges, concentration difficulties, increased eating, depression). No evidence of compensatory smoking during nonwork hours was found. Overall tobacco exposure, as measured in saliva cotinine, showed a nonsignificant 15% decline. Conclusions. Workplace smoking restriction markedly altered smoking patterns (i.e., reduced daytime smoking) and reduced cotinine levels to an amount consistent with cigarette reduction. Thus, work-site smoking restriction may promote meaningful, albeit limited, reductions in tobacco exposure and consequent health risks.

AB - Objectives. This study evaluated the biological and subjective consequences observed in individual smokers after implementation of a workplace smoking-restriction policy. Methods. Employees were evaluated for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after their workplace became smoke-free (n = 34). A comparison group of smokers whose work-site smoking was unrestricted served as controls (n = 33). Daily exposure to tobacco constituents and withdrawal effects were measured. Results. Smokers at the restricted site had verified smoking reduction (mean = four cigarettes per day) and significantly reduced nicotine and carbon monoxide during the work shift. There were increases in ratings of some common withdrawal symptoms (cravings/urges, concentration difficulties, increased eating, depression). No evidence of compensatory smoking during nonwork hours was found. Overall tobacco exposure, as measured in saliva cotinine, showed a nonsignificant 15% decline. Conclusions. Workplace smoking restriction markedly altered smoking patterns (i.e., reduced daytime smoking) and reduced cotinine levels to an amount consistent with cigarette reduction. Thus, work-site smoking restriction may promote meaningful, albeit limited, reductions in tobacco exposure and consequent health risks.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027981133&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027981133&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8179047

AN - SCOPUS:0027981133

VL - 84

SP - 773

EP - 778

JO - American Journal of Public Health

JF - American Journal of Public Health

SN - 0090-0036

IS - 5

ER -