Background. South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected and -uninfected children. Methods. IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or polymerase chain reaction. Four controls, matched for age, HIV status, and hospital were sought for each case. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated vaccine effectiveness (VE) as 1 minus the adjusted odds ratio for vaccination. Results. From March 2010 through November 2012, we enrolled 187 HIV-uninfected (48 [26%] vaccine serotype) and 109 HIV-infected (43 [39%] vaccine serotype) cases and 752 HIV-uninfected and 347 HIV-infected controls aged ≥16 weeks. Effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25%-91%) among HIV-uninfected and -12% (95% CI, -449% to 77%) among HIV-infected children. Effectiveness of ≥3 doses against vaccine-serotype IPD was 90% (95% CI, 14%-99%) among HIV-uninfected and 57% (95% CI, -371% to 96%) among HIV-infected children. Among HIV-exposed but -uninfected children, effectiveness of ≥2 doses was 92% (95% CI, 47%-99%) against vaccine-serotype IPD. Effectiveness of ≥2 doses against all-serotype multidrug-resistant IPD was 96% (95% CI, 62%-100%) among HIV-uninfected children. Conclusions. A 2 + 1 PCV7 schedule was effective in preventing vaccine-serotype IPD in HIV-uninfected and HIV-exposed, uninfected children. This finding supports the World Health Organization recommendation for this schedule as an alternative to a 3-dose primary series among HIV-uninfected individuals.
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
- South Africa
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases