Effectiveness guidance document (EGD) for acupuncture research - a consensus document for conducting trials

Claudia M. Witt, Mikel Aickin, Trini Baca, Dan Cherkin, Mary N. Haan, Richard Hammerschlag, Jason J. Hao, George A. Kaplan, Lixing Lao, Terri McKay, Beverly Pierce, David Riley, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Kevin Thorpe, Sean Tunis, Jed Weissberg, Brian M. Berman, Benno Brinkhaus, Francesco Cardini, George LewithKlaus Linde, Hugh MacPherson, Richard L. Nahin, Rosa S. chnyer, Charles Turkelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Background: There is a need for more Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) to strengthen the evidence base for clinical and policy decision-making. Effectiveness Guidance Documents (EGD) are targeted to clinical researchers. The aim of this EGD is to provide specific recommendations for the design of prospective acupuncture studies to support optimal use of resources for generating evidence that will inform stakeholder decision-making.Methods: Document development based on multiple systematic consensus procedures (written Delphi rounds, interactive consensus workshop, international expert review). To balance aspects of internal and external validity, multiple stakeholders including patients, clinicians and payers were involved.Results: Recommendations focused mainly on randomized studies and were developed for the following areas: overall research strategy, treatment protocol, expertise and setting, outcomes, study design and statistical analyses, economic evaluation, and publication.Conclusion: The present EGD, based on an international consensus developed with multiple stakeholder involvement, provides the first systematic methodological guidance for future CER on acupuncture.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number148
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
StatePublished - Sep 6 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Acupuncture
  • Comparative effectiveness research
  • Effectiveness guidance document

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine


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