Effective immunization with live attenuated influenza A virus can be achieved in early infancy

Mary Lou Clements, Mamodikoe K. Makhene, Ruth A. Karron, Brian R. Murphy, Mark C. Steinhoff, Kanta Subbarao, Modena H. Wilson, Peter F. Wright

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


The immunogenicity of vaccines can be modified in infancy by maternal antibodies and other immunizations. Hence, the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of 107 TCID50 of live, attenuated cold-adapted (ca) influenza A/Kawasaki/86 (H1N1) reassortant virus vaccine given with or apart from childhood immunizations were evaluated in infants, starting at 2, 4, or >6 months of age, in randomized, double-blind trials. The ca vaccine was safe and did not significantly reduce the immunogenicity of the childhood vaccines in these infants. Infectivity of ca virus (virus shedding, ≥4-fold rise in serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer, or both) was affected by age, quantity of ca virus given, and prior ca virus infection. Two doses of 107 TCID50 of ca influenza virus infected all infants, indicating that both doses are probably needed to achieve immunity against influenza in infants <6 months of age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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