Effect of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on antibody responses to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in HIV-positive injection drug users: A randomized trial

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


HIV-infected individuals have impaired immune responses to vaccines and high rates of pneumococcal disease. The effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on the immunogenicity of a 7-valent pneumococcal CRM-197 conjugate vaccine (PC-7) was evaluated in 118 HIV+ injection drug users. Subjects were randomized to oral 400,000 IU vitamin A, 300 mg zinc, vitamin A + zinc, or placebo, then immunized. Geometric mean titer increased 1.3-3.3-fold for all pneumococcal serotypes. PC-7 elicited an immune response in HIV-infected adults but neither vitamin A nor zinc altered the immunogenicity of the evaluated vaccines.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1670-1679
Number of pages10
Issue number10
StatePublished - Mar 6 2006



  • HIV
  • Pneumococcal vaccine
  • Vitamin A
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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