Importance: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of health care-associated infections in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Parents may expose neonates to S aureus colonization, a well-established predisposing factor to invasive S aureus disease. Objective: To test whether treating parents with intranasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine compared with placebo would reduce transmission of S aureus from parents to neonates. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blinded randomized clinical trial in 2 tertiary NICUs in Baltimore, Maryland. Neonates (n = 236) with S aureus-colonized parent(s) were enrolled. The study period was November 7, 2014, through December 13, 2018. Interventions: Parents were assigned to intranasal mupirocin and 2% chlorhexidine-impregnated cloths (active treatment, n = 117) or petrolatum intranasal ointment and nonmedicated soap cloths (placebo, n = 119) for 5 days. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was concordant S aureus colonization by 90 days, defined as neonatal acquisition of an S aureus strain that was the same strain as a parental strain at time of screening. Secondary outcomes included neonatal acquisition of any S aureus strain and neonatal S aureus infections. Results: Among 236 randomized neonates, 208 were included in the analytic sample (55% male; 76% singleton births; mean birth weight, 1985 g [SD, 958 g]; 76% vaginal birth; mean parent age, 31 [SD, 7] years), of whom 18 were lost to follow-up. Among 190 neonates included in the analysis, 74 (38.9%) acquired S aureus colonization by 90 days, of which 42 (56.8%) had a strain concordant with a parental baseline strain. In the intervention and placebo groups, 13 of 89 neonates (14.6%) and 29 of 101 neonates (28.7%), respectively, acquired concordant S aureus colonization (risk difference, -14.1% [95% CI, -30.8% to -3.9%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.43 [95.2% CI, 0.16 to 0.79]). A total of 28 of 89 neonates (31.4%) in the intervention group and 46 of 101 (45.5%) in the control group acquired any S aureus strain (HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.31 to 0.88]), and 1 neonate (1.1%) in the intervention group and 1 neonate (1.0%) in the control group developed an S aureus infection before colonization. Skin reactions in parents were common (4.8% intervention, 6.2% placebo). Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary trial of parents colonized with S aureus, treatment with intranasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine-impregnated cloths compared with placebo significantly reduced neonatal colonization with an S aureus strain concordant with a parental baseline strain. However, further research is needed to replicate these findings and to assess their generalizability. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02223520.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association|
|State||Published - Jan 28 2020|
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