Effect of setup and inter-fraction anatomical changes on the accumulated dose in CT-guided breath-hold intensity modulated proton therapy of liver malignancies

Zhiyong Yang, Yu Chang, Kristy K. Brock, Guillaume Cazoulat, Eugene J. Koay, Albert C. Koong, Joseph M. Herman, Peter C. Park, Falk Poenisch, Qin Li, Kunyu Yang, Gang Wu, Brian Anderson, Andrea N. Ohrt, Yupeng Li, X. Ronald Zhu, Xiaodong Zhang, Heng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Purpose: To evaluate the effect of setup uncertainties including uncertainties between different breath holds (BH) and inter-fractional anatomical changes under CT-guided BH with intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in patients with liver cancer. Methods and materials: This retrospective study considered 17 patients with liver tumors who underwent feedback-guided BH (FGBH) IMRT treatment with daily CT-on-rail imaging. Planning CT images were acquired at simulation using FGBH, and FGBH CT-on-rail images were also acquired prior to each treatment. Selective robust IMPT plans were generated using planning CT and re-calculated on each daily CT-on-rail image. Subsequently, the fractional doses were deformed and accumulated onto the planning CT according to the deformable image registration between daily and planning CTs. The doses to the target and organs at risk (OARs) were compared between IMRT, planned IMPT, and accumulated IMPT doses. Results: For IMPT plans, the mean of D 98% of CTV for all 17 patients was slightly reduced from the planned dose of 68.90 ± 1.61 Gy to 66.48 ± 1.67 Gy for the accumulated dose. The target coverage could be further improved by adjusting planning techniques. The dose–volume histograms of both planned and accumulated IMPT doses showed better sparing of OARs than that of the IMRT. Conclusions: IMPT with FGBH and CT-on-rail guidance is a robust treatment approach for liver tumor cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-109
Number of pages9
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2019
Externally publishedYes



  • Accumulated dose
  • Intensity-modulated proton therapy
  • Liver cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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