Effect of NADPH oxidase inhibition on cardiopulmonary bypass-induced lung injury

Jeffrey M. Dodd-O, Laura E. Welsh, Jorge D. Salazar, Peter L. Walinsky, Eric A. Peck, Jay G. Shake, David J. Caparrelli, Roy C. Ziegelstein, Jay L. Zweier, William A. Baumgartner, David B. Pearse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) causes acute lung injury. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) from NADPH oxidase may contribute to this injury. To determine the role of NADPH oxidase, we pretreated pigs with structurally dissimilar NADPH oxidase inhibitors. Low-dose apocynin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone; 200 mg/kg, n = 6), high-dose apocynin (400 mg/kg, n = 6), or diphenyleneiodonium (DPI; 8 mg/kg) was compared with diluent (n = 8). An additional group was treated with indomethacin (10 mg/kg, n = 3). CPB was performed for 2 h with deflated lungs, complete pulmonary artery occlusion, and bronchial artery ligation to maximize lung injury. Parameters of pulmonary function were evaluated for 25 min following CPB. Blood chemiluminescence indicated neutrophil ROS production. Electron paramagnetic resonance determined the effect of apocynin and DPI on in vitro pulmonary endothelial ROS production following hypoxia-reoxygenation. Both apocynin and DPI attenuated blood chemiluminescence and post-CPB hypoxemia. At 25 min post-CPB with FIO2 = 1, arterial PO2 (PaO2) averaged 52 ± 5, 162 ± 54, 335 ± 88, and 329 ± 119 mmHg in control, low-dose apocynin, high-dose apocynin, and DPI-treated groups, respectively (P < 0.01). Indomethacin had no effect. PaO2 correlated with blood chemiluminescence measured after drug administration before CPB (R = -0.60, P < 0.005). Neither apocynin nor DPI prevented the increased tracheal pressure, plasma cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6), extravascular lung water, and pulmonary vascular protein permeability observed in control pigs. NADPH oxidase inhibition, but not xanthine oxidase inhibition, significantly blocked endothelial ROS generation following hypoxia-reoxygenation (P < 0.05). NADPH oxidase-derived ROS contribute to the severe hypoxemia but not to the increased cytokine generation and pulmonary vascular protein permeability, which occur following CPB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H927-H936
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number2 56-2
StatePublished - Aug 2004


  • Apocynin
  • Diphenyleneiodonium
  • Endothelium
  • Hypoxia-reoxygenation
  • Interleukin-6
  • Pig
  • Reflection coefficient
  • Tumor necrosis factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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