Effect of maturation media and oocytes derived from sows or gilts on the development of cloned pig embryos

S. H. Hyun, Gabsang Lee, D. Y. Kim, H. S. Kim, S. H. Lee, S. Kim, E. S. Lee, J. M. Lim, S. K. Kang, B. C. Lee, W. S. Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


In order to develop a culture system and recipient cytoplasm that could improve the developmental competence of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos for successful cloning of pigs, we evaluated the effect of donor oocytes and in vitro maturation (IVM) media on maturation of oocytes and developmental competence of SCNT embryos. In Experiment 1, oocytes derived from sows or gilts were matured in two IVM media (TCM-199 versus NCSU-23) and maturation of oocytes was evaluated by the status of chromatin configuration, the diameter of matured oocytes, the thickness of the zona pellucida, and the size of the perivitelline space (PVS). Sow oocytes matured in TCM-199 (S-TCM group) and NCSU-23 (S-NCSU group) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) maturation rates (S-TCM and S-NSCU, 86 ± 4 and 82 ± 4%, respectively) when evaluated by metaphase-II status than the gilt oocytes matured in TCM-199 (G-TCM group, 71 ± 3%) and in NCSU-23 (G-NCSU-23 group, 71 ± 3%). Oocyte diameter, the thickness of the zona pellucida, and the perivitelline space of sow oocytes (S-TCM and S-NCSU) were larger than those of gilt oocytes (G-TCM anal G-NCSU) after IVM (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, SCNT was performed, using in vitro-matured oocytes from each group as recipient cytoplasm and porcine fetal fibroblasts as karyoplasts. The reconstructed embryos were electrically fused and activated, and cleavage and blastocyst formation were monitored under a stereomicroscope. The total cell number of flattened blastocysts stained with 5 μM bisbenzimide on day 7 were counted. In addition, in vitro matured non-enucleated oocytes were also electrically activated (parthenogenetic activation) and pronuclear formation was monitored. No difference in pronuclear formation rate after parthenogenetic activation and fusion rate after SCNT was observed among experimental groups. A significantly higher cleavage rate (P < 0.05) was observed in S-TCM (69 ± 4%) when compared with only G-NCSU (58 ± 4%), but not with G-TCM (60 ± 4%) or S-NCSU (68 ± 4%). The rate of blastocyst formation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in sow oocytes (24% in S-TCM and S-NCSU), when compared to that observed in G-TCM (15%), and G-NCSU (14%). When the same source of oocytes was used, there was no significant difference in rate of blastocyst formation in the two culture media. Total cell number of blastocysts were not significantly different among experimental groups. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that sow oocytes have a greater developmental competence than gilt oocytes, regardless of the maturation medium examined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1641-1649
Number of pages9
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2003
Externally publishedYes



  • Clone embryos
  • IVM media
  • Nuclear transfer
  • Oocyte source
  • Porcine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals
  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Equine

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