Lime, representative of that used by betel quid chewers, was collected in a region of Papua New Guinea where the incidence in a region is high. The free calcium hydroxide content and pH of 25 lime samples were highly correlated with the the generation of reactive oxygen species from areca nut extract in vitro, and DNA damage in vitro, measured as 8-hydroxy- 2'-deoxyguanosine. Fe2+ and Mg2+ levels in the lime samples were too low to modify formation of reactive oxygen species, but hydrogen peroxide formation was almost entirely inhibited by additon of Mg2+ to the reaction mixture. These results suggest that the calcium hydroxide content of lime in the presence of areca nut is primarily responsible for the formation of reactive oxygen species which might cause oxidative damage in the DNA of buccal mucosa cells of betel quid chewers.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research