Infarct expansion starts within hours to days after transmural myocardial injury. Previous echocardiographic and left ventriculographic studies demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy limits left ventricular dilatation, particularly in patients with anterior wall acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or impaired left ventricular function. Forty-three patients with an acute Q-wave AMI were randomized within 24 hours of symptom onset to intravenous enalaprilat (1 mg) or placebo. Patients were then given corresponding oral therapy and followed for 1 month. Predrug and 1-month gated blood pool scans were obtained in 32 patients to evaluate changes in cardiac volumes and ejection fraction. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 1 month to evaluate left ventricular infarct expansion. Blood pressure decreased at 6 hours but returned to baseline in both groups after 1 month of therapy. The change in cardiac volumes from baseline to 1 month differed between the placebo (end-diastolic volume +16 ± 5 ml, end-systolic volume +8 ± 6 ml), and enalapril (end-diastolic volume -8 ± 9 ml and end-systolic volume -14 ± 7 ml) groups (p < 0.05 vs placebo). Global and infarct zone ejection fractions improved significantly at 1 month in the enalapril group (+6 ± 3% and 19 ± 5%, respectively) but did not change over 1 month in the placebo group. Infarct segment length and infarct expansion index by magnetic resonance imaging were significantly less in those treated with enalapril, suggesting less infarct expansion in this group. Thus, early administration of enalaprilat to patients presenting with a first Q-wave AMI prevents cardiac dilatation and infarct expansion.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine