Effect of diarrhea on the humoral response to oral polio vaccination

Jacques A. Myaux, Leanne Unicomb, Richard E. Besser, John F. Modlin, A. Uzma, Aminul M. Islam, Mathuram Santosham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of concurrent diarrheal illness on seroconversion to trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). Methods. Six- to 16-week-old infants with acute diarrhea and age-matched controls received single doses of OPV at enrollment, 4 weeks after enrollment and 8 weeks after enrollment. Serum specimens were obtained at enrollment, before the second OPV dose and 4 weeks after the third OPV dose for measurement of antibody titers to polio virus by the microneutralization assay. Results. Four weeks after the first OPV dose, the serologic responses to poliovirus types 2 and 3 in the case cohort were lower by 26 and 34%, respectively, than in the control cohort (P < 0.002 for both comparisons). Poliovirus type 2 and 3 geometric mean antibody titers in the diarrhea cohort were approximately 50% of the geometric mean antibody titers in the control cohort (235 (95% confidence interval (CI) 154 to 359) vs. 446 (95% CI 350 to 569) and 64 (95% CI 45 to 90) vs. 112 (95% CI 88 to 143), respectively, P < 0.01 for both comparisons). After the third OPV dose the seroconvertion rates to poliovirus types 2 and 3 each remained about 10% lower in the case cohort than in the control cohort, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Concurrent acute diarrhea adversely affects seroconvertion rates of type 2 and 3 polioviruses among infants in Bangladesh receiving the first dose of trivalent OPV.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)204-209
Number of pages6
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume15
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 11 1996

Keywords

  • Oral polio vaccine
  • developing countries
  • diarrhea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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