Effect of airtime incentives on response and cooperation rates in non-communicable disease interactive voice response surveys: Randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh and Uganda

Dustin Gibson, Adaeze C. Wosu, George Pariyo, Saifuddin Ahmed, Joseph Ali, Alain B Labrique, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Elizeus Rutebemberwa, Meerjady Sabrina Flora, Adnan A. Hyder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background The global proliferation of mobile phones offers opportunity for improved non-communicable disease (NCD) data collection by interviewing participants using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. We assessed whether airtime incentives can improve cooperation and response rates for an NCD IVR survey in Bangladesh and Uganda. Methods Participants were randomised to three arms: a) no incentive, b) 1X incentive or c) 2X incentive, where X was set to airtime of 50 Bangladesh Taka (US$0.60) and 5000 Ugandan Shillings (UGX; US$1.35). Adults aged 18 years and older who had a working mobile phone were sampled using random digit dialling. The primary outcomes, cooperation and response rates as defined by the American Association of Public Opinion Research, were analysed using log-binomial regression model. Results Between 14 June and 14 July 2017, 440 262 phone calls were made in Bangladesh. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 28.8% (353/1227) and 19.2% (580/3016) in control, 39.2% (370/945) and 23.9% (507/2120) in 50 Taka and 40.0% (362/906) and 24.8% (532/2148) in 100 Taka incentive groups. Cooperation and response rates, respectively, were significantly higher in both the 50 Taka (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.53) and (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38), and 100 Taka groups (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.56) and (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.43), as compared with the controls. In Uganda, 174 157 phone calls were made from 26 March to 22 April 2017. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 44.7% (377/844) and 35.2% (552/1570) in control, 57.6% (404/701) and 39.3% (508/1293) in 5000 UGX and 58.8% (421/716) and 40.3% (535/1328) in 10 000 UGX groups. Cooperation and response rates were significantly higher, respectively in the 5000 UGX (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42) and (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23), and 10 000 UGX groups (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.45) and (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.26), as compared with the control group. Conclusion In two diverse settings, the provision of an airtime incentive significantly improved both the cooperation and response rates of an IVR survey, with no significant difference between the two incentive amounts. Trial registration number NCT03768323.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere001604
JournalBMJ Global Health
Volume4
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2019

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Uganda
Bangladesh
Motivation
Randomized Controlled Trials
Odds Ratio
Cell Phones
Public Opinion
Surveys and Questionnaires
Statistical Models
Control Groups
Research

Keywords

  • ICT
  • incentive
  • interactive voice response
  • mHealth
  • mobile phone surveys
  • non-communicable disease
  • risk factor surveillance
  • survey methodology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Effect of airtime incentives on response and cooperation rates in non-communicable disease interactive voice response surveys : Randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh and Uganda. / Gibson, Dustin; Wosu, Adaeze C.; Pariyo, George; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Ali, Joseph; Labrique, Alain B; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Flora, Meerjady Sabrina; Hyder, Adnan A.

In: BMJ Global Health, Vol. 4, No. 5, e001604, 01.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background The global proliferation of mobile phones offers opportunity for improved non-communicable disease (NCD) data collection by interviewing participants using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. We assessed whether airtime incentives can improve cooperation and response rates for an NCD IVR survey in Bangladesh and Uganda. Methods Participants were randomised to three arms: a) no incentive, b) 1X incentive or c) 2X incentive, where X was set to airtime of 50 Bangladesh Taka (US$0.60) and 5000 Ugandan Shillings (UGX; US$1.35). Adults aged 18 years and older who had a working mobile phone were sampled using random digit dialling. The primary outcomes, cooperation and response rates as defined by the American Association of Public Opinion Research, were analysed using log-binomial regression model. Results Between 14 June and 14 July 2017, 440 262 phone calls were made in Bangladesh. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 28.8{\%} (353/1227) and 19.2{\%} (580/3016) in control, 39.2{\%} (370/945) and 23.9{\%} (507/2120) in 50 Taka and 40.0{\%} (362/906) and 24.8{\%} (532/2148) in 100 Taka incentive groups. Cooperation and response rates, respectively, were significantly higher in both the 50 Taka (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95{\%} CI 1.21 to 1.53) and (RR 1.24, 95{\%} CI 1.12 to 1.38), and 100 Taka groups (RR 1.39, 95{\%} CI 1.23 to 1.56) and (RR 1.29, 95{\%} CI 1.16 to 1.43), as compared with the controls. In Uganda, 174 157 phone calls were made from 26 March to 22 April 2017. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 44.7{\%} (377/844) and 35.2{\%} (552/1570) in control, 57.6{\%} (404/701) and 39.3{\%} (508/1293) in 5000 UGX and 58.8{\%} (421/716) and 40.3{\%} (535/1328) in 10 000 UGX groups. Cooperation and response rates were significantly higher, respectively in the 5000 UGX (RR 1.29, 95{\%} CI 1.17 to 1.42) and (RR 1.12, 95{\%} CI 1.02 to 1.23), and 10 000 UGX groups (RR 1.32, 95{\%} CI 1.19 to 1.45) and (RR 1.15, 95{\%} CI 1.04 to 1.26), as compared with the control group. Conclusion In two diverse settings, the provision of an airtime incentive significantly improved both the cooperation and response rates of an IVR survey, with no significant difference between the two incentive amounts. Trial registration number NCT03768323.",
keywords = "ICT, incentive, interactive voice response, mHealth, mobile phone surveys, non-communicable disease, risk factor surveillance, survey methodology",
author = "Dustin Gibson and Wosu, {Adaeze C.} and George Pariyo and Saifuddin Ahmed and Joseph Ali and Labrique, {Alain B} and Khan, {Iqbal Ansary} and Elizeus Rutebemberwa and Flora, {Meerjady Sabrina} and Hyder, {Adnan A.}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of airtime incentives on response and cooperation rates in non-communicable disease interactive voice response surveys

T2 - Randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh and Uganda

AU - Gibson, Dustin

AU - Wosu, Adaeze C.

AU - Pariyo, George

AU - Ahmed, Saifuddin

AU - Ali, Joseph

AU - Labrique, Alain B

AU - Khan, Iqbal Ansary

AU - Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

AU - Flora, Meerjady Sabrina

AU - Hyder, Adnan A.

PY - 2019/9/1

Y1 - 2019/9/1

N2 - Background The global proliferation of mobile phones offers opportunity for improved non-communicable disease (NCD) data collection by interviewing participants using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. We assessed whether airtime incentives can improve cooperation and response rates for an NCD IVR survey in Bangladesh and Uganda. Methods Participants were randomised to three arms: a) no incentive, b) 1X incentive or c) 2X incentive, where X was set to airtime of 50 Bangladesh Taka (US$0.60) and 5000 Ugandan Shillings (UGX; US$1.35). Adults aged 18 years and older who had a working mobile phone were sampled using random digit dialling. The primary outcomes, cooperation and response rates as defined by the American Association of Public Opinion Research, were analysed using log-binomial regression model. Results Between 14 June and 14 July 2017, 440 262 phone calls were made in Bangladesh. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 28.8% (353/1227) and 19.2% (580/3016) in control, 39.2% (370/945) and 23.9% (507/2120) in 50 Taka and 40.0% (362/906) and 24.8% (532/2148) in 100 Taka incentive groups. Cooperation and response rates, respectively, were significantly higher in both the 50 Taka (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.53) and (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38), and 100 Taka groups (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.56) and (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.43), as compared with the controls. In Uganda, 174 157 phone calls were made from 26 March to 22 April 2017. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 44.7% (377/844) and 35.2% (552/1570) in control, 57.6% (404/701) and 39.3% (508/1293) in 5000 UGX and 58.8% (421/716) and 40.3% (535/1328) in 10 000 UGX groups. Cooperation and response rates were significantly higher, respectively in the 5000 UGX (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42) and (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23), and 10 000 UGX groups (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.45) and (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.26), as compared with the control group. Conclusion In two diverse settings, the provision of an airtime incentive significantly improved both the cooperation and response rates of an IVR survey, with no significant difference between the two incentive amounts. Trial registration number NCT03768323.

AB - Background The global proliferation of mobile phones offers opportunity for improved non-communicable disease (NCD) data collection by interviewing participants using interactive voice response (IVR) surveys. We assessed whether airtime incentives can improve cooperation and response rates for an NCD IVR survey in Bangladesh and Uganda. Methods Participants were randomised to three arms: a) no incentive, b) 1X incentive or c) 2X incentive, where X was set to airtime of 50 Bangladesh Taka (US$0.60) and 5000 Ugandan Shillings (UGX; US$1.35). Adults aged 18 years and older who had a working mobile phone were sampled using random digit dialling. The primary outcomes, cooperation and response rates as defined by the American Association of Public Opinion Research, were analysed using log-binomial regression model. Results Between 14 June and 14 July 2017, 440 262 phone calls were made in Bangladesh. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 28.8% (353/1227) and 19.2% (580/3016) in control, 39.2% (370/945) and 23.9% (507/2120) in 50 Taka and 40.0% (362/906) and 24.8% (532/2148) in 100 Taka incentive groups. Cooperation and response rates, respectively, were significantly higher in both the 50 Taka (risk ratio (RR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.53) and (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.38), and 100 Taka groups (RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.56) and (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.43), as compared with the controls. In Uganda, 174 157 phone calls were made from 26 March to 22 April 2017. The cooperation and response rates were, respectively, 44.7% (377/844) and 35.2% (552/1570) in control, 57.6% (404/701) and 39.3% (508/1293) in 5000 UGX and 58.8% (421/716) and 40.3% (535/1328) in 10 000 UGX groups. Cooperation and response rates were significantly higher, respectively in the 5000 UGX (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42) and (RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.23), and 10 000 UGX groups (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.45) and (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.26), as compared with the control group. Conclusion In two diverse settings, the provision of an airtime incentive significantly improved both the cooperation and response rates of an IVR survey, with no significant difference between the two incentive amounts. Trial registration number NCT03768323.

KW - ICT

KW - incentive

KW - interactive voice response

KW - mHealth

KW - mobile phone surveys

KW - non-communicable disease

KW - risk factor surveillance

KW - survey methodology

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