Importance: Patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations have high rehospitalization rates and reduced quality of life. Objective: To evaluate a hospital-initiated program that combined transition and long-term self-management support for patients hospitalized due to COPD and their family caregivers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-site randomized clinical trial was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, with 240 participants. Participants were patients hospitalized due to COPD, randomized to intervention or usual care, and followed up for 6 months after hospital discharge. Enrollment occurred from March 2015 to May 2016; follow-up ended in December 2016. Interventions: The intervention (n = 120) was a comprehensive 3-month program to help patients and their family caregivers with long-term self-management of COPD. It was delivered by COPD nurses (nurses with special training on supporting patients with COPD using standardized tools). Usual care (n = 120) included transition support for 30 days after discharge to ensure adherence to discharge plan and connection to outpatient care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was number of COPD-related acute care events (hospitalizations and emergency department visits) per participant at 6 months. The co-primary outcome was change in participants' health-related quality of life measured by the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) at 6 months after discharge (score, 0 [best] to 100 [worst]; 4-point difference is clinically meaningful). Results: Among 240 patients who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 64.9 [9.8] years; females, 61.7%), 203 (85%) completed the study. The mean (SD) baseline SGRQ score was 63.1 (19.9) in the intervention group and 62.6 (19.3) in the usual care group. The mean number of COPD-related acute care events per participant at 6 months was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.45-0.97) in the intervention group vs 1.40 (95% CI, 1.01-1.79) in the usual care group (difference, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.22 to 1.15]; P =.004). The mean change in participants' SGRQ total score at 6 months was -1.53 in the intervention and +5.44 in the usual care group (adjusted difference, -6.69 [95% CI, -12.97 to -0.40]; P =.04). During the study period, there were 15 deaths (intervention: 7; usual care: 8) and 337 hospitalizations (intervention: 135; usual care: 202). Conclusions and Relevance: In a single-site randomized clinical trial of patients hospitalized due to COPD, a 3-month program that combined transition and long-term self-management support resulted in significantly fewer COPD-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits and better health-related quality of life at 6 months after discharge. Further research is needed to evaluate this intervention in other settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02036294.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association|
|State||Published - Dec 11 2018|
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