Echocardiography is critical in the assessment of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Fundamental techniques and standardised approaches are useful when evaluating patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome prenatally, after birth, and before the Norwood operation (Stage 1); after the Norwood operation, before and after the superior cavopulmonary anastomosis (Stage 2); before and after the Fontan operation (Stage 3); and for chronic surveillance after the Fontan operation. From foetal assessment to ongoing surveillance after the Fontan procedure, echocardiography remains the primary technique for cardiac monitoring in this growing population of children and adults.
- Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
- congenital cardiac disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine