Echocardiography for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: Recommendations for Performance and Reporting-A Report from the American Society of Echocardiography Dyssynchrony Writing Group Endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society

John Gorcsan, Theodore Abraham, Deborah A. Agler, Jeroen J. Bax, Genevieve Derumeaux, Richard A. Grimm, Randy Martin, Jonathan S. Steinberg, Martin St John Sutton, Cheuk Man Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Echocardiography plays an evolving and important role in the care of heart failure patients treated with biventricular pacing, or cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Numerous recent published reports have utilized echocardiographic techniques to potentially aide in patient selection for CRT prior to implantation and to optimized device settings afterwards. However, no ideal approach has yet been found. This consensus report evaluates the contemporary applications of echocardiography for CRT including relative strengths and technical limitations of several techniques and proposes guidelines regarding current and possible future clinical applications. Principal methods advised to qualify abnormalities in regional ventricular activation, known as dyssynchrony, include longitudinal velocities by color-coded tissue Doppler and the difference in left ventricular to right ventricular ejection using routine pulsed Doppler, or interventricular mechanical delay. Supplemental measures of radial dynamics which may be of additive value include septal-to-posterior wall delay using M-mode in patients with non-ischemic disease with technically high quality data, or using speckle tracking radial strain. A simplified post-CRT screening for atrioventricular optimization using Doppler mitral inflow velocities is also proposed. Since this is rapidly changing field with new information being added frequently, future modification and refinements in approach are anticipated to continue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-213
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2008



  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Doppler ultrasound
  • Echocardiography
  • Pacing Therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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