Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to cause increased arterial stiffness, which is an important independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to assess the vascular properties of the aorta (AO) in a group of children with CKD using a noninvasive echocardiography (echo)-Doppler method. We studied 24 children with stages 2 through 5 CKD and 48 age-matched controls. Detailed echocardiographic assessment and echo-Doppler pulse wave velocity (PWV) was performed. Indices of arterial stiffness, including characteristic (Zc) and input (Zi) impedances, elastic pressure-strain modulus (Ep), and arterial wall stiffness index, were calculated. CKD patients underwent full nephrology assessment, and an iohexol glomerular filtration rate was performed, which allowed for accurate assignment of the CKD stage. CKD patients had greater median systolic blood pressure (114 vs. 110 mmHg; p < 0.04) and pulse pressure (51 vs. 40 mmHg; p < 0.001) compared with controls. PWV was similar between groups (358 vs. 344 cm s -1; p = 0.759), whereas Zi (182 vs. 131 dyne s cm-5; p < 0.001), Zc (146 vs. 138 dyne s cm-5; p = 0.05), and Ep (280 vs. 230 mmHg; p < 0.02) were significantly greater in CKD than in controls. Although load-dependent measures of arterial stiffness were greater in non-dialysis dependent CKD patients, PWV was not increased compared with controls. This suggests that the increased arterial stiffness may not be permanent in these pediatric patients with kidney disease.
- Arterial stiffness
- Kidney disease
- Pulse wave velocity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine