EBNA-2 of herpesvirus papio diverges significantly from the type A and type B EBNA-2 proteins of Epstein-Barr virus but retains an efficient transactivation domain with a conserved hydrophobic motif

Paul D. Ling, Judith J. Ryon, S. Diane Hayward

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

EBNA-2 contributes to the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency in B cells and to the resultant alterations in B-cell growth pattern by up-regulating expression from specific viral and cellular promoters. We have taken a comparative approach toward characterizing functional domains within EBNA-2. To this end, we have cloned and sequenced the EBNA-2 gene from the closely related baboon virus herpesvirus papio (HVP). All human EBV isolates have either a type A or type B EBNA-2 gene. However, the HVP EBNA-2 gene falls into neither the type A category nor the type B category, suggesting that the separation into these two subtypes may have been a recent evolutionary event. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences indicates 37% amino acid identity with EBV type A EBNA-2 and 35% amino acid identity with type B EBNA-2. To define the domains of EBNA-2 required for transcriptional activation, the DNA binding domain of the GAL4 protein was fused to overlapping segments of EBV EBNA-2. This approach identified a 40-amino-acid (40-aa) EBNA-2 activation domain located between aa 437 and 477. Transactivation ability was completely lost when the amino-terminal boundary of this domain was moved to aa 441, indicating that the motif at aa 437 to 440, Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe, contains residues critical for function. The aa 437 boundary identified in these experiments coincides precisely with a block of conserved sequences in HVP EBNA-2, and the comparable carboxy-terminal region of HVP EBNA-2 also functioned as a strong transcriptional activation domain when fused to the Gal4(1-147) protein. The EBV and HVP EBNA-2 activation domains share a mixed proline-rich, negatively charged character with a striking conservation of positionally equivalent hydrophobic residues. The importance of the individual amino acids making up the Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe motif was examined by mutagenesis. Any alteration of these residues was found to reduce transactivation efficiency, with changes at the Pro-437 and Phe-440 positions producing the most deleterious effects. Activation of the EBV latency C promoter by EBNA-2 was shown to be dependent on the presence of the carboxy-terminal activation domain. However, this requirement was generic, rather than specific, since the EBNA-2 activation domain could be replaced with those from the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP16 protein or the EBV Rta protein. Potential karyophilic signals within EBNA-2 were examined by introducing oligonucleotides encoding positively charged amino acid groupings that might serve in this capacity into a cytoplasmic test protein, HSV ΔIE175, and by examining the intracellular localization of the resulting proteins. This assay identified a strong nuclear localization signal between EBV amino acids (aa) 478 to 485, which was conserved in HVP, and a weaker noncanonical signal between EBV aa 341 to 355, which was not conserved in HVP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2990-3003
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Virology
Volume67
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1993

Fingerprint

Papiine herpesvirus 2
Human herpesvirus 4
transcriptional activation
Simplexvirus
Transcriptional Activation
Human Herpesvirus 4
Amino Acids
amino acids
Papiine herpesvirus 1
Papio
proteins
Herpesviridae
Virus Latency
herpes simplex
viruses
Herpes Simplex Virus Protein Vmw65
B-lymphocytes
Proteins
B-Lymphocytes
Human herpesvirus 4 EBNA-2 protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

EBNA-2 of herpesvirus papio diverges significantly from the type A and type B EBNA-2 proteins of Epstein-Barr virus but retains an efficient transactivation domain with a conserved hydrophobic motif. / Ling, Paul D.; Ryon, Judith J.; Hayward, S. Diane.

In: Journal of Virology, Vol. 67, No. 6, 06.1993, p. 2990-3003.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0e1d85a925494b5ba9361d42306d269a,
title = "EBNA-2 of herpesvirus papio diverges significantly from the type A and type B EBNA-2 proteins of Epstein-Barr virus but retains an efficient transactivation domain with a conserved hydrophobic motif",
abstract = "EBNA-2 contributes to the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency in B cells and to the resultant alterations in B-cell growth pattern by up-regulating expression from specific viral and cellular promoters. We have taken a comparative approach toward characterizing functional domains within EBNA-2. To this end, we have cloned and sequenced the EBNA-2 gene from the closely related baboon virus herpesvirus papio (HVP). All human EBV isolates have either a type A or type B EBNA-2 gene. However, the HVP EBNA-2 gene falls into neither the type A category nor the type B category, suggesting that the separation into these two subtypes may have been a recent evolutionary event. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences indicates 37{\%} amino acid identity with EBV type A EBNA-2 and 35{\%} amino acid identity with type B EBNA-2. To define the domains of EBNA-2 required for transcriptional activation, the DNA binding domain of the GAL4 protein was fused to overlapping segments of EBV EBNA-2. This approach identified a 40-amino-acid (40-aa) EBNA-2 activation domain located between aa 437 and 477. Transactivation ability was completely lost when the amino-terminal boundary of this domain was moved to aa 441, indicating that the motif at aa 437 to 440, Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe, contains residues critical for function. The aa 437 boundary identified in these experiments coincides precisely with a block of conserved sequences in HVP EBNA-2, and the comparable carboxy-terminal region of HVP EBNA-2 also functioned as a strong transcriptional activation domain when fused to the Gal4(1-147) protein. The EBV and HVP EBNA-2 activation domains share a mixed proline-rich, negatively charged character with a striking conservation of positionally equivalent hydrophobic residues. The importance of the individual amino acids making up the Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe motif was examined by mutagenesis. Any alteration of these residues was found to reduce transactivation efficiency, with changes at the Pro-437 and Phe-440 positions producing the most deleterious effects. Activation of the EBV latency C promoter by EBNA-2 was shown to be dependent on the presence of the carboxy-terminal activation domain. However, this requirement was generic, rather than specific, since the EBNA-2 activation domain could be replaced with those from the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP16 protein or the EBV Rta protein. Potential karyophilic signals within EBNA-2 were examined by introducing oligonucleotides encoding positively charged amino acid groupings that might serve in this capacity into a cytoplasmic test protein, HSV ΔIE175, and by examining the intracellular localization of the resulting proteins. This assay identified a strong nuclear localization signal between EBV amino acids (aa) 478 to 485, which was conserved in HVP, and a weaker noncanonical signal between EBV aa 341 to 355, which was not conserved in HVP.",
author = "Ling, {Paul D.} and Ryon, {Judith J.} and Hayward, {S. Diane}",
year = "1993",
month = "6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "67",
pages = "2990--3003",
journal = "Journal of Virology",
issn = "0022-538X",
publisher = "American Society for Microbiology",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - EBNA-2 of herpesvirus papio diverges significantly from the type A and type B EBNA-2 proteins of Epstein-Barr virus but retains an efficient transactivation domain with a conserved hydrophobic motif

AU - Ling, Paul D.

AU - Ryon, Judith J.

AU - Hayward, S. Diane

PY - 1993/6

Y1 - 1993/6

N2 - EBNA-2 contributes to the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency in B cells and to the resultant alterations in B-cell growth pattern by up-regulating expression from specific viral and cellular promoters. We have taken a comparative approach toward characterizing functional domains within EBNA-2. To this end, we have cloned and sequenced the EBNA-2 gene from the closely related baboon virus herpesvirus papio (HVP). All human EBV isolates have either a type A or type B EBNA-2 gene. However, the HVP EBNA-2 gene falls into neither the type A category nor the type B category, suggesting that the separation into these two subtypes may have been a recent evolutionary event. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences indicates 37% amino acid identity with EBV type A EBNA-2 and 35% amino acid identity with type B EBNA-2. To define the domains of EBNA-2 required for transcriptional activation, the DNA binding domain of the GAL4 protein was fused to overlapping segments of EBV EBNA-2. This approach identified a 40-amino-acid (40-aa) EBNA-2 activation domain located between aa 437 and 477. Transactivation ability was completely lost when the amino-terminal boundary of this domain was moved to aa 441, indicating that the motif at aa 437 to 440, Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe, contains residues critical for function. The aa 437 boundary identified in these experiments coincides precisely with a block of conserved sequences in HVP EBNA-2, and the comparable carboxy-terminal region of HVP EBNA-2 also functioned as a strong transcriptional activation domain when fused to the Gal4(1-147) protein. The EBV and HVP EBNA-2 activation domains share a mixed proline-rich, negatively charged character with a striking conservation of positionally equivalent hydrophobic residues. The importance of the individual amino acids making up the Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe motif was examined by mutagenesis. Any alteration of these residues was found to reduce transactivation efficiency, with changes at the Pro-437 and Phe-440 positions producing the most deleterious effects. Activation of the EBV latency C promoter by EBNA-2 was shown to be dependent on the presence of the carboxy-terminal activation domain. However, this requirement was generic, rather than specific, since the EBNA-2 activation domain could be replaced with those from the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP16 protein or the EBV Rta protein. Potential karyophilic signals within EBNA-2 were examined by introducing oligonucleotides encoding positively charged amino acid groupings that might serve in this capacity into a cytoplasmic test protein, HSV ΔIE175, and by examining the intracellular localization of the resulting proteins. This assay identified a strong nuclear localization signal between EBV amino acids (aa) 478 to 485, which was conserved in HVP, and a weaker noncanonical signal between EBV aa 341 to 355, which was not conserved in HVP.

AB - EBNA-2 contributes to the establishment of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency in B cells and to the resultant alterations in B-cell growth pattern by up-regulating expression from specific viral and cellular promoters. We have taken a comparative approach toward characterizing functional domains within EBNA-2. To this end, we have cloned and sequenced the EBNA-2 gene from the closely related baboon virus herpesvirus papio (HVP). All human EBV isolates have either a type A or type B EBNA-2 gene. However, the HVP EBNA-2 gene falls into neither the type A category nor the type B category, suggesting that the separation into these two subtypes may have been a recent evolutionary event. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences indicates 37% amino acid identity with EBV type A EBNA-2 and 35% amino acid identity with type B EBNA-2. To define the domains of EBNA-2 required for transcriptional activation, the DNA binding domain of the GAL4 protein was fused to overlapping segments of EBV EBNA-2. This approach identified a 40-amino-acid (40-aa) EBNA-2 activation domain located between aa 437 and 477. Transactivation ability was completely lost when the amino-terminal boundary of this domain was moved to aa 441, indicating that the motif at aa 437 to 440, Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe, contains residues critical for function. The aa 437 boundary identified in these experiments coincides precisely with a block of conserved sequences in HVP EBNA-2, and the comparable carboxy-terminal region of HVP EBNA-2 also functioned as a strong transcriptional activation domain when fused to the Gal4(1-147) protein. The EBV and HVP EBNA-2 activation domains share a mixed proline-rich, negatively charged character with a striking conservation of positionally equivalent hydrophobic residues. The importance of the individual amino acids making up the Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe motif was examined by mutagenesis. Any alteration of these residues was found to reduce transactivation efficiency, with changes at the Pro-437 and Phe-440 positions producing the most deleterious effects. Activation of the EBV latency C promoter by EBNA-2 was shown to be dependent on the presence of the carboxy-terminal activation domain. However, this requirement was generic, rather than specific, since the EBNA-2 activation domain could be replaced with those from the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP16 protein or the EBV Rta protein. Potential karyophilic signals within EBNA-2 were examined by introducing oligonucleotides encoding positively charged amino acid groupings that might serve in this capacity into a cytoplasmic test protein, HSV ΔIE175, and by examining the intracellular localization of the resulting proteins. This assay identified a strong nuclear localization signal between EBV amino acids (aa) 478 to 485, which was conserved in HVP, and a weaker noncanonical signal between EBV aa 341 to 355, which was not conserved in HVP.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027229230&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027229230&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 8388484

AN - SCOPUS:0027229230

VL - 67

SP - 2990

EP - 3003

JO - Journal of Virology

JF - Journal of Virology

SN - 0022-538X

IS - 6

ER -