These studies investigated the effectiveness of in vivo administration of cytokines in ameliorating potential marrow damage induced by chemotherapy. Breast cancer patients received 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (FLAC) followed by either GM-CSF, PIXY321, or no cytokine. Marrow was obtained before and after one or two cycles of FLAC once blood cell counts had recovered. Colony-forming units for granulocytes and macrophages (CFU-GM) were used to indicate the effect of therapy on recovery of committed progenitor cells responsible for early blood cell recovery. The frequency and number of CFU-GM in marrow obtained after FLAC + PIXY321 were significantly lower than in marrow obtained after FLAC + GM-CSF or FLAC without cytokine. CD34+ cell numbers were also reduced after FLAC + PIXY321. CFU-GM production in marrow long-term cultures (LTC) was used to assess the effect of therapy on primitive progenitors. After 5 weeks the number of CPU-GM in LTC of post-therapy marrow from all three treatment arms was < 15% of the number in pre-therapy LTC. Suppressive effects of FLAC on primitive progenitors were observed even when committed progenitors and CD34+ cells had recovered to pre-therapy levels. These results demonstrate that cytokine treatment did not ameliorate suppressive or toxic effects of FLAC on the functional integrity of the marrow.
- Bone marrow long-term cultures
- CD34 cells
- Colony-forming units for granulocytes and macrophages
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