Early Prostate Cancer Antigen Expression in Predicting Presence of Prostate Cancer in Men With Histologically Negative Biopsies

D. E. Hansel, Angelo Michael Demarzo, Elizabeth A Platz, S. Jadallah, J. Hicks, Jonathan Ira Epstein, Alan Wayne Partin, G. J. Netto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. Materials and Methods: We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Results: Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p = 0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in group 1 (23 of 39, 59%). Early prostate cancer antigen was negative in 41% of group 4 who were known to harbor prostate carcinoma. The proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was statistically significantly lower in group 2 than in each of the other groups when compared pairwise. A lower proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was encountered in older archival tissue blocks (p

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1736-1740
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume177
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

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Prostatic Neoplasms
Biopsy
Antigens
Prostate
Staining and Labeling
Carcinoma
Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins
Adenocarcinoma
Immunohistochemistry
Antibodies

Keywords

  • adenocarcinoma
  • antigens
  • biological
  • neoplasm
  • prostate
  • tumor markers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

Cite this

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title = "Early Prostate Cancer Antigen Expression in Predicting Presence of Prostate Cancer in Men With Histologically Negative Biopsies",
abstract = "Purpose: Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. Materials and Methods: We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Results: Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75{\%}) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29{\%}, p = 0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in group 1 (23 of 39, 59{\%}). Early prostate cancer antigen was negative in 41{\%} of group 4 who were known to harbor prostate carcinoma. The proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was statistically significantly lower in group 2 than in each of the other groups when compared pairwise. A lower proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was encountered in older archival tissue blocks (p",
keywords = "adenocarcinoma, antigens, biological, neoplasm, prostate, tumor markers",
author = "Hansel, {D. E.} and Demarzo, {Angelo Michael} and Platz, {Elizabeth A} and S. Jadallah and J. Hicks and Epstein, {Jonathan Ira} and Partin, {Alan Wayne} and Netto, {G. J.}",
year = "2007",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Early Prostate Cancer Antigen Expression in Predicting Presence of Prostate Cancer in Men With Histologically Negative Biopsies

AU - Hansel, D. E.

AU - Demarzo, Angelo Michael

AU - Platz, Elizabeth A

AU - Jadallah, S.

AU - Hicks, J.

AU - Epstein, Jonathan Ira

AU - Partin, Alan Wayne

AU - Netto, G. J.

PY - 2007/5

Y1 - 2007/5

N2 - Purpose: Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. Materials and Methods: We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Results: Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p = 0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in group 1 (23 of 39, 59%). Early prostate cancer antigen was negative in 41% of group 4 who were known to harbor prostate carcinoma. The proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was statistically significantly lower in group 2 than in each of the other groups when compared pairwise. A lower proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was encountered in older archival tissue blocks (p

AB - Purpose: Early prostate cancer antigen is a nuclear matrix protein that was recently shown to be expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and adjacent benign tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated early prostate cancer antigen expression in benign prostate tissue up to 5 years before a diagnosis of prostate carcinoma, suggesting that early prostate cancer antigen could be used as a potential predictive marker. Materials and Methods: We evaluated early prostate cancer antigen expression by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody (Onconome Inc., Seattle, Washington) on benign biopsies from 98 patients. Biopsies were obtained from 4 groups that included 39 patients with first time negative biopsy (group 1), 24 patients with persistently negative biopsies (group 2), 8 patients with initially negative biopsies who were subsequently diagnosed with prostate carcinoma (group 3) and negative biopsies obtained from 27 cases where other concurrent biopsies contained prostate carcinoma (group 4). Early prostate cancer antigen staining was assessed by 2 of the authors who were blind to the group of the examined sections. Staining intensity (range 0 to 3) and extent (range 1 to 3) scores were assigned. The presence of intensity 3 staining in any of the blocks of a biopsy specimen was considered as positive for early prostate cancer antigen for the primary outcome in the statistical analysis. In addition, as secondary outcomes we evaluated the data using the proportion of blocks with intensity 3 early prostate cancer antigen staining, the mean of the product of staining intensity and staining extent of all blocks within a biopsy, and the mean of the product of intensity 3 staining and extent. Results: Primary outcome analysis revealed the proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity to be highest in group 3 (6 of 8, 75%) and lowest in group 2 (7 of 24, 29%, p = 0.04 for differences among groups). A relatively higher than expected proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was present in group 1 (23 of 39, 59%). Early prostate cancer antigen was negative in 41% of group 4 who were known to harbor prostate carcinoma. The proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was statistically significantly lower in group 2 than in each of the other groups when compared pairwise. A lower proportion of early prostate cancer antigen positivity was encountered in older archival tissue blocks (p

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