Background Limited prior data suggest that pre-existing liver disease was associated with adverse outcomes among patients with COVID-19. FIB-4 is a noninvasive index of readily available laboratory measurements that represents hepatic fibrosis. The association of FIB-4 with COVID-19 outcomes has not been previously evaluated. Methods FIB-4 was evaluated at admission in a cohort of 267 patients admitted with early-stage COVID-19 confirmed through RT-PCR. Hazard of ventilator use and of high-flow oxygen was estimated using Cox regression models controlled for covariates. Risk of progress to severe cases and of death/prolonged hospitalization (>30 days) were estimated using logistic regression models controlled for same covariates. Results Forty-one (15%) patients progressed to severe cases, 36 (14%) required high-flow oxygen support, 10 (4%) required mechanical ventilator support, and 1 died. Patients with high FIB-4 score (>3.25) were more likely to be older with pre-existing conditions. FIB-4 between 1.45-3.25 was associated with over 5-fold (95% CI: 1.2-28) increased hazard of high-flow oxygen use, over 4-fold (95% CI: 1.5-14.6) increased odds of progress to severe stage, and over 3-fold (95% CI: 1.4-7.7) increased odds of death or prolonged hospitalization. FIB-4>3.25 was associated with over 12-fold (95% CI: 2.3-68. 7) increased hazard of high-flow oxygen use and over 11-fold (95% CI: 3.1-45) increased risk of progress to severe disease. All associations were independent of sex, number of comorbidities, and inflammatory markers (D-dimer, C-reactive protein). Conclusions FIB-4 at early-stage of COVID-19 disease had an independent and dose-dependent association with adverse outcomes during hospitalization. FIB-4 provided significant prognostic value to adverse outcomes among COVID-19 patients.
ASJC Scopus subject areas