Background and study aims: Endoscopic therapy of upper gastrointestinal bleeding remains challenging with conventional endoscopic devices. Use of Hemospray, where a nanopowder with clotting abilities is sprayed onto the bleeding site, had been highly effective for management of arterial bleeding in a heparizined animal model. The safety and effectiveness of Hemospray for hemostasis of active peptic ulcer bleeding in humans was evaluated. Patients and methods: In a prospective, single-arm, pilot clinical study, consecutive adults with confirmed peptic ulcer bleeding (Forrest score Ia or Ib), who had all given informed consent to participation, underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and application of Hemospray within 24 hours of hospital admission once hemodynamically stable. Up to two applications of Hemospray, not exceeding a total of 150 g were allowed. Bleeding recurrence was monitored post procedurally, by second-look endoscopy (72 hours post treatment), and by phone at 30 days. Rate of hemostasis, recurrent bleeding, mortality, need for surgical intervention, and treatment-related complications were assessed. Results: 20 patients were recruited (18 men, 2 women; mean age 60.2 years). Acute hemostasis was achieved in 95 % (19 / 20) of patients; 1 patient had a pseudoaneurysm requiring arterial embolization. Bleeding recurred in 2 patients within 72 hours (shown by hemoglobin drop); neither had active bleeding identified at the 72-hour endoscopy. No mortality, major adverse events, or treatment- or procedure-related serious adverse events were reported during 30-day follow-up. Conclusion: These pilot results indicate that Hemospray is safe in humans. Hemospray was effective in achieving acute hemostasis in active peptic ulcer bleeding.
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