Calmodulin regulation of CaV channels is a prominent Ca 2+ feedback mechanism orchestrating vital adjustments of Ca 2+ entry. The long-held structural correlation of this regulation has been Ca2+ -bound calmodulin, complexed alone with an IQ domain on the channel carboxy terminus. Here, however, systematic alanine mutagenesis of the entire carboxyl tail of an L-type CaV 1.3 channel casts doubt on this paradigm. To identify the actual molecular states underlying channel regulation, we develop a structure-function approach relating the strength of regulation to the affinity of underlying calmodulin/channel interactions, by a Langmuir relation (individually transformed Langmuir analysis). Accordingly, we uncover frank exchange of Ca2+ -calmodulin to interfaces beyond the IQ domain, initiating substantial rearrangements of the calmodulin/channel complex. The N-lobe of Ca2+ -calmodulin binds an N-terminal spatial Ca2+ transforming element module on the channel amino terminus, whereas the C-lobe binds an EF-hand region upstream of the IQ domain. This system of structural plasticity furnishes a next-generation blueprint for CaV channel modulation.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)