Drug use, increasing incarceration rates, and prison-associated HIV risks in Thailand

Christopher Beyrer, Jaroon Jittiwutikarn, Waranya Teokul, Myat Htoo Razak, Vinai Suriyanon, Namtip Srirak, Tasanai Vongchuk, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Teerada Sripaipan, David D Celentano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Incarceration is a known risk for HIV infection in Thai drug users. Through the 1990s, incarceration rates for drug-related offenses rose sharply, whereas HIV prevention and drug treatment in prisons remained limited. Methods: We assessed HIV and incarceration risks for injection drug users (IDU) and non-IDU in a large treatment center cohort in northern Thailand to investigate HIV and prison risks in this period. We used Thai Bureau of Corrections data to assess incarceration and prevention funds in prisons, 1992-2000. Results: Among 1,865 drug user in the treatment cohort, 503 (27.0%) had ever been jailed. Men (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1, 5.2),IDU (OR 6.3, 95% CI 5.1, 7.9), and men who have sex with men (MSM) (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8, 6.3) were more likely to have been jailed. Among male IDU who had ever been jailed (N = 272), 15.8% had used drugs in prison. In a multivariate model, incarceration and ever IDU remained independently associated with HIV infection; IDU, MSM behaviors, and harmful traditional practices remained independently associated with having been jailed. From 1992 to 2000, overall alleged narcotics offenses increased from 117,000 to 276,000/year. The number of persons incarcerated for narcotics offenses increased fivefold from 1992 to 1999, from 12,860 to 67,440. For FY 2000, narcotics treatment accounted for 0.06% of the Thai corrections budget, whereas HIV programs in prisons were 0.017%. Conclusions: Incarceration rates for narcotics offenses have increased sharply in Thailand, whereas prevention has lagged. Having been jailed is an important independent risk for HIV infection among Thai male drug users, especially IDU and MSM. HIV prevention and drug treatment are urgently needed in Thai prisons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-161
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Volume7
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2003

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Prisons
Thailand
Drug Users
HIV
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Narcotics
Injections
HIV Infections
Therapeutics
Budgets
Financial Management

Keywords

  • HIV risks
  • Incarceration
  • Injecting drug users
  • Thailand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Drug use, increasing incarceration rates, and prison-associated HIV risks in Thailand. / Beyrer, Christopher; Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon; Teokul, Waranya; Razak, Myat Htoo; Suriyanon, Vinai; Srirak, Namtip; Vongchuk, Tasanai; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sripaipan, Teerada; Celentano, David D.

In: AIDS and Behavior, Vol. 7, No. 2, 06.2003, p. 153-161.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Beyrer, C, Jittiwutikarn, J, Teokul, W, Razak, MH, Suriyanon, V, Srirak, N, Vongchuk, T, Tovanabutra, S, Sripaipan, T & Celentano, DD 2003, 'Drug use, increasing incarceration rates, and prison-associated HIV risks in Thailand', AIDS and Behavior, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 153-161. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023946324822
Beyrer, Christopher ; Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon ; Teokul, Waranya ; Razak, Myat Htoo ; Suriyanon, Vinai ; Srirak, Namtip ; Vongchuk, Tasanai ; Tovanabutra, Sodsai ; Sripaipan, Teerada ; Celentano, David D. / Drug use, increasing incarceration rates, and prison-associated HIV risks in Thailand. In: AIDS and Behavior. 2003 ; Vol. 7, No. 2. pp. 153-161.
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abstract = "Background: Incarceration is a known risk for HIV infection in Thai drug users. Through the 1990s, incarceration rates for drug-related offenses rose sharply, whereas HIV prevention and drug treatment in prisons remained limited. Methods: We assessed HIV and incarceration risks for injection drug users (IDU) and non-IDU in a large treatment center cohort in northern Thailand to investigate HIV and prison risks in this period. We used Thai Bureau of Corrections data to assess incarceration and prevention funds in prisons, 1992-2000. Results: Among 1,865 drug user in the treatment cohort, 503 (27.0{\%}) had ever been jailed. Men (OR 3.3, 95{\%} CI 2.1, 5.2),IDU (OR 6.3, 95{\%} CI 5.1, 7.9), and men who have sex with men (MSM) (OR 3.4, 95{\%} CI 1.8, 6.3) were more likely to have been jailed. Among male IDU who had ever been jailed (N = 272), 15.8{\%} had used drugs in prison. In a multivariate model, incarceration and ever IDU remained independently associated with HIV infection; IDU, MSM behaviors, and harmful traditional practices remained independently associated with having been jailed. From 1992 to 2000, overall alleged narcotics offenses increased from 117,000 to 276,000/year. The number of persons incarcerated for narcotics offenses increased fivefold from 1992 to 1999, from 12,860 to 67,440. For FY 2000, narcotics treatment accounted for 0.06{\%} of the Thai corrections budget, whereas HIV programs in prisons were 0.017{\%}. Conclusions: Incarceration rates for narcotics offenses have increased sharply in Thailand, whereas prevention has lagged. Having been jailed is an important independent risk for HIV infection among Thai male drug users, especially IDU and MSM. HIV prevention and drug treatment are urgently needed in Thai prisons.",
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AU - Beyrer, Christopher

AU - Jittiwutikarn, Jaroon

AU - Teokul, Waranya

AU - Razak, Myat Htoo

AU - Suriyanon, Vinai

AU - Srirak, Namtip

AU - Vongchuk, Tasanai

AU - Tovanabutra, Sodsai

AU - Sripaipan, Teerada

AU - Celentano, David D

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N2 - Background: Incarceration is a known risk for HIV infection in Thai drug users. Through the 1990s, incarceration rates for drug-related offenses rose sharply, whereas HIV prevention and drug treatment in prisons remained limited. Methods: We assessed HIV and incarceration risks for injection drug users (IDU) and non-IDU in a large treatment center cohort in northern Thailand to investigate HIV and prison risks in this period. We used Thai Bureau of Corrections data to assess incarceration and prevention funds in prisons, 1992-2000. Results: Among 1,865 drug user in the treatment cohort, 503 (27.0%) had ever been jailed. Men (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1, 5.2),IDU (OR 6.3, 95% CI 5.1, 7.9), and men who have sex with men (MSM) (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8, 6.3) were more likely to have been jailed. Among male IDU who had ever been jailed (N = 272), 15.8% had used drugs in prison. In a multivariate model, incarceration and ever IDU remained independently associated with HIV infection; IDU, MSM behaviors, and harmful traditional practices remained independently associated with having been jailed. From 1992 to 2000, overall alleged narcotics offenses increased from 117,000 to 276,000/year. The number of persons incarcerated for narcotics offenses increased fivefold from 1992 to 1999, from 12,860 to 67,440. For FY 2000, narcotics treatment accounted for 0.06% of the Thai corrections budget, whereas HIV programs in prisons were 0.017%. Conclusions: Incarceration rates for narcotics offenses have increased sharply in Thailand, whereas prevention has lagged. Having been jailed is an important independent risk for HIV infection among Thai male drug users, especially IDU and MSM. HIV prevention and drug treatment are urgently needed in Thai prisons.

AB - Background: Incarceration is a known risk for HIV infection in Thai drug users. Through the 1990s, incarceration rates for drug-related offenses rose sharply, whereas HIV prevention and drug treatment in prisons remained limited. Methods: We assessed HIV and incarceration risks for injection drug users (IDU) and non-IDU in a large treatment center cohort in northern Thailand to investigate HIV and prison risks in this period. We used Thai Bureau of Corrections data to assess incarceration and prevention funds in prisons, 1992-2000. Results: Among 1,865 drug user in the treatment cohort, 503 (27.0%) had ever been jailed. Men (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1, 5.2),IDU (OR 6.3, 95% CI 5.1, 7.9), and men who have sex with men (MSM) (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.8, 6.3) were more likely to have been jailed. Among male IDU who had ever been jailed (N = 272), 15.8% had used drugs in prison. In a multivariate model, incarceration and ever IDU remained independently associated with HIV infection; IDU, MSM behaviors, and harmful traditional practices remained independently associated with having been jailed. From 1992 to 2000, overall alleged narcotics offenses increased from 117,000 to 276,000/year. The number of persons incarcerated for narcotics offenses increased fivefold from 1992 to 1999, from 12,860 to 67,440. For FY 2000, narcotics treatment accounted for 0.06% of the Thai corrections budget, whereas HIV programs in prisons were 0.017%. Conclusions: Incarceration rates for narcotics offenses have increased sharply in Thailand, whereas prevention has lagged. Having been jailed is an important independent risk for HIV infection among Thai male drug users, especially IDU and MSM. HIV prevention and drug treatment are urgently needed in Thai prisons.

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