Dose-related distribution of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites into human hair following controlled oral codeine and subcutaneous cocaine administration

Karl B. Scheidweiler, Edward J. Cone, Eric T. Moolchan, Marilyn A. Huestis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Hair testing for the determination of drug exposure has many useful applications. Drug incorporated into hair can be found for extended periods following drug exposure. There are few controlled drug administration studies investigating drug distribution into human hair. Ten volunteers participated in a 10-week controlled cocaine and codeine administration study while residing in the secure research ward. Weekly hair samples were collected by electric razor. During the low-dose week (week 4), volunteers received 75 mg/70 kg cocaine subcutaneously and 60 mg/70 kg codeine orally on alternating days, a total of three doses for each drug. Similarly, during week 7, volunteers received three doses 150 mg/70 kg cocaine and 120 mg/70 kg codeine. Maximum hair concentrations (Cmax) were found 1 to 3 weeks after low and high doses. Dose-related Cmax values of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, norcocaine, cocaethylene, and codeine were found following low and high doses. Hair analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A positive linear relationship was found between total melanin content of hair and Cmax of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites following high dosing. This study demonstrated dose-related concentrations of cocaine and metabolites in human hair following controlled cocaine administration. These data are the first demonstrating melanin-related incorporation of cocaine and metabolites into human hair following controlled cocaine administration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)909-915
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume313
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Codeine
Cocaine
Hair
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Volunteers
Melanins
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Liquid Chromatography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Dose-related distribution of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites into human hair following controlled oral codeine and subcutaneous cocaine administration. / Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Cone, Edward J.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

In: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 313, No. 2, 05.2005, p. 909-915.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{1ce7d0d7968b48d4b95add6d658e28a4,
title = "Dose-related distribution of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites into human hair following controlled oral codeine and subcutaneous cocaine administration",
abstract = "Hair testing for the determination of drug exposure has many useful applications. Drug incorporated into hair can be found for extended periods following drug exposure. There are few controlled drug administration studies investigating drug distribution into human hair. Ten volunteers participated in a 10-week controlled cocaine and codeine administration study while residing in the secure research ward. Weekly hair samples were collected by electric razor. During the low-dose week (week 4), volunteers received 75 mg/70 kg cocaine subcutaneously and 60 mg/70 kg codeine orally on alternating days, a total of three doses for each drug. Similarly, during week 7, volunteers received three doses 150 mg/70 kg cocaine and 120 mg/70 kg codeine. Maximum hair concentrations (Cmax) were found 1 to 3 weeks after low and high doses. Dose-related Cmax values of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, norcocaine, cocaethylene, and codeine were found following low and high doses. Hair analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A positive linear relationship was found between total melanin content of hair and Cmax of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites following high dosing. This study demonstrated dose-related concentrations of cocaine and metabolites in human hair following controlled cocaine administration. These data are the first demonstrating melanin-related incorporation of cocaine and metabolites into human hair following controlled cocaine administration.",
author = "Scheidweiler, {Karl B.} and Cone, {Edward J.} and Moolchan, {Eric T.} and Huestis, {Marilyn A.}",
year = "2005",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1124/jpet.104.082388",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "313",
pages = "909--915",
journal = "Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics",
issn = "0022-3565",
publisher = "American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dose-related distribution of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites into human hair following controlled oral codeine and subcutaneous cocaine administration

AU - Scheidweiler, Karl B.

AU - Cone, Edward J.

AU - Moolchan, Eric T.

AU - Huestis, Marilyn A.

PY - 2005/5

Y1 - 2005/5

N2 - Hair testing for the determination of drug exposure has many useful applications. Drug incorporated into hair can be found for extended periods following drug exposure. There are few controlled drug administration studies investigating drug distribution into human hair. Ten volunteers participated in a 10-week controlled cocaine and codeine administration study while residing in the secure research ward. Weekly hair samples were collected by electric razor. During the low-dose week (week 4), volunteers received 75 mg/70 kg cocaine subcutaneously and 60 mg/70 kg codeine orally on alternating days, a total of three doses for each drug. Similarly, during week 7, volunteers received three doses 150 mg/70 kg cocaine and 120 mg/70 kg codeine. Maximum hair concentrations (Cmax) were found 1 to 3 weeks after low and high doses. Dose-related Cmax values of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, norcocaine, cocaethylene, and codeine were found following low and high doses. Hair analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A positive linear relationship was found between total melanin content of hair and Cmax of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites following high dosing. This study demonstrated dose-related concentrations of cocaine and metabolites in human hair following controlled cocaine administration. These data are the first demonstrating melanin-related incorporation of cocaine and metabolites into human hair following controlled cocaine administration.

AB - Hair testing for the determination of drug exposure has many useful applications. Drug incorporated into hair can be found for extended periods following drug exposure. There are few controlled drug administration studies investigating drug distribution into human hair. Ten volunteers participated in a 10-week controlled cocaine and codeine administration study while residing in the secure research ward. Weekly hair samples were collected by electric razor. During the low-dose week (week 4), volunteers received 75 mg/70 kg cocaine subcutaneously and 60 mg/70 kg codeine orally on alternating days, a total of three doses for each drug. Similarly, during week 7, volunteers received three doses 150 mg/70 kg cocaine and 120 mg/70 kg codeine. Maximum hair concentrations (Cmax) were found 1 to 3 weeks after low and high doses. Dose-related Cmax values of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, norcocaine, cocaethylene, and codeine were found following low and high doses. Hair analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A positive linear relationship was found between total melanin content of hair and Cmax of codeine, cocaine, and metabolites following high dosing. This study demonstrated dose-related concentrations of cocaine and metabolites in human hair following controlled cocaine administration. These data are the first demonstrating melanin-related incorporation of cocaine and metabolites into human hair following controlled cocaine administration.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=18044381156&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=18044381156&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1124/jpet.104.082388

DO - 10.1124/jpet.104.082388

M3 - Article

C2 - 15743923

AN - SCOPUS:18044381156

VL - 313

SP - 909

EP - 915

JO - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

JF - Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

SN - 0022-3565

IS - 2

ER -