Dose escalation of the hypoxic cell sensitizer etanidazole combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell support

Anthony D. Elias, Catherine Wheeler, Lois J. Ayash, Gary Schwartz, Joseph Ibrahim, Letha Mills, Mary McCauley, Norman Coleman, Diane Warren, Lowell Schnipper, Karen H. Antman, Beverly A. Teicher, Emil Frei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Multiple mechanisms of drug resistance contribute to treatment failure. Although high-dose therapy attempts to overwhelm these defenses pharmacologically, this approach is only successful in a fraction of treated patients. Many drug resistance mechanisms are shared between malignant and normal cells, but the expression of various drug resistance mechanisms associated with hypoxia is largely confined to tumor tissue. Thus, reversal of this mechanism is likely to provide a therapeutic advantage to the host. This study was designed to define the dose-limiting toxicities and maximum tolerated dose of etanidazole when it is given concurrently with high-dose ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE), with hematopoietic stem cell support. The maximum tolerated doses of high-dose ICE were administered concurrently with dose escalations of etanidazole, a hypoxic cell sensitizer. All agents were given by 96-h continuous i.v. infusion beginning on day -7. Mesna uroprotection was provided. Autologous marrow and cytokine mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells were reinfused on day 0. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was administered following reinfusion until the granulocytes recovered to >1000/μl. Fifty-five adults with advanced malignancies were enrolled in cohorts of five to nine patients. Four dose levels of etanidazole between 3 and 5.5 g/m2/day (12, 16, 20, and 22 g/m2 total doses) and two doses of carboplatin (1600 and 1800 mg/m2 total doses) were evaluated. Seven patients died of organ toxicity (13%); two each from veno-occlusive disease of liver and sepsis; and one each from sudden death, renal failure, and refractory thrombocytopenic hemorrhage. Five deaths occurred at the top dose level. One additional patient suffered a witnessed cardiorespiratory arrest from ventricular fibrillation and was resuscitated. Dose-dependent and largely reversible peripheral neuropathy was observed consisting of two syndromes: severe cramping myalgic/neuralgic pain, predominantly in stocking glove distribution, occurring between day -3 and day 0, and a sensory peripheral neuropathy with similar distribution peaking around day +60. The maximal achievable dose of etanidazole (16 g/m2 dose level) resulted in a mean serum level of 38 μg/ml (25-55 μg/ml). Etanidazole significantly enhanced host toxicity of high-dose ICE. Effective modulatory doses of etanidazole could not be given with acceptable toxicity using this schedule.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1443-1449
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume4
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 1998

    Fingerprint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Elias, A. D., Wheeler, C., Ayash, L. J., Schwartz, G., Ibrahim, J., Mills, L., McCauley, M., Coleman, N., Warren, D., Schnipper, L., Antman, K. H., Teicher, B. A., & Frei, E. (1998). Dose escalation of the hypoxic cell sensitizer etanidazole combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide, and autologous hematopoietic stem cell support. Clinical Cancer Research, 4(6), 1443-1449.