Dose-dependent antifungal activity and nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion in experimental pulmonary aspergillosis

M. C. Allende, J. W. Lee, P. Francis, K. Garrett, H. Dollenberg, J. Berenguer, C. A. Lyman, P. A. Pizzo, T. J. Walsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

We investigated the safety and efficacy of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD) for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. Treatment groups included ABCD in dosages of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day intravenously or conventional desoxycholate amphotericin B (DAmB) at 1 mg/kg/day intravenously. Antifungal activity was directly related to increasing dosage of ABCD as determined by the concentration of Aspergillus fumigatus organisms in lungs and the frequency of hemorrhagic pulmonary lesions. At 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, there was a significant reduction in the tissue burden of A. fumigatus as measured by percent culture-positive lobes and CFU per gram of tissue (P ≤ 0.001), whereas at 1 mg/kg/day the tissue burden of A. fumigatus was not significantly different from that in untreated controls. Microbiological clearance was significantly greater at 1 mg of DAmB per kg per day than at 1 mg of ABCD per kg per day (P < 0.001). There was no difference in microbiological clearance of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid among the treatment groups as measured by CFU per milliliter. As determined by survival, ABCD at 5.0 mg/kg/day was more effective than DAmB at 1.0 mg/kg/day and ABCD at 10 mg/kg/day. ABCD at 10 mg/kg/day was more nephrotoxic than the lower dosages of ABCD and resulted in higher mortality. Impairment of glomerular filtration developed as a direct function increasing the ABCD dosage (r = 0.77; P < 0.001). In summary, this study found dose-dependent antifungal activity and nephrotoxicity of ABCD against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits and showed that the optimal dosage of ABCD for antifungal activity and safety was 5 mg/kg/day.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)518-522
Number of pages5
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume38
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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