Domains of transcription factor Sp1 required for synergistic activation with sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 of low density lipoprotein receptor promoter

Lynn Yieh, Hugo B. Sanchez, Timothy Osborne

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Feedback regulation of transcription from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene is fundamentally important in the maintenance of intracellular sterol balance. The region of the LDL receptor promoter responsible for normal sterol regulation contains adjacent binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 and the cholesterol-sensitive sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Interestingly, both are essential for normal sterol-mediated regulation of the promoter. The cooperation by Sp1 and SREBP-1 occurs at two steps in the activation process. SREBP-1 stimulates the binding of Sp1 to its adjacent recognition site in the promoter followed by enhanced stimulation of transcription after both proteins are bound to DNA. In the present report, we have defined the protein domains of Sp1 that are required for both synergistic DNA binding and transcriptional activation. The major activation domains of Sp1 that have previously been shown to be essential to activation of promoters containing multiple Sp1 sites are required for activation of the LDL receptor promoter. Additionally, the C domain is also crucial. This slightly acidic ≃120-amino acid region is not required for efficient synergistic activation by multiple Sp1 sites or in combination with other recently characterized transcriptional regulators. We also show that Sp1 domain C is essential for full, enhanced DNA binding by SREBP-1. Taken together with other recent studies on the role of Sp1 in promoter activation, the current experiments suggest a unique combinatorial mechanism for promoter activation by two distinct transcription factors that are both essential to intracellular cholesterol homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6102-6106
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume92
Issue number13
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 20 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Sp1 Transcription Factor
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
LDL Receptors
Sterols
DNA
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins
Cholesterol
Acidic Amino Acids
Transcriptional Activation
Homeostasis
Transcription Factors
Binding Sites
Maintenance
Genes
Proteins

Keywords

  • cotransfection
  • synergistic transcriptional activation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

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abstract = "Feedback regulation of transcription from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene is fundamentally important in the maintenance of intracellular sterol balance. The region of the LDL receptor promoter responsible for normal sterol regulation contains adjacent binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 and the cholesterol-sensitive sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Interestingly, both are essential for normal sterol-mediated regulation of the promoter. The cooperation by Sp1 and SREBP-1 occurs at two steps in the activation process. SREBP-1 stimulates the binding of Sp1 to its adjacent recognition site in the promoter followed by enhanced stimulation of transcription after both proteins are bound to DNA. In the present report, we have defined the protein domains of Sp1 that are required for both synergistic DNA binding and transcriptional activation. The major activation domains of Sp1 that have previously been shown to be essential to activation of promoters containing multiple Sp1 sites are required for activation of the LDL receptor promoter. Additionally, the C domain is also crucial. This slightly acidic ≃120-amino acid region is not required for efficient synergistic activation by multiple Sp1 sites or in combination with other recently characterized transcriptional regulators. We also show that Sp1 domain C is essential for full, enhanced DNA binding by SREBP-1. Taken together with other recent studies on the role of Sp1 in promoter activation, the current experiments suggest a unique combinatorial mechanism for promoter activation by two distinct transcription factors that are both essential to intracellular cholesterol homeostasis.",
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AU - Osborne, Timothy

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N2 - Feedback regulation of transcription from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene is fundamentally important in the maintenance of intracellular sterol balance. The region of the LDL receptor promoter responsible for normal sterol regulation contains adjacent binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 and the cholesterol-sensitive sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Interestingly, both are essential for normal sterol-mediated regulation of the promoter. The cooperation by Sp1 and SREBP-1 occurs at two steps in the activation process. SREBP-1 stimulates the binding of Sp1 to its adjacent recognition site in the promoter followed by enhanced stimulation of transcription after both proteins are bound to DNA. In the present report, we have defined the protein domains of Sp1 that are required for both synergistic DNA binding and transcriptional activation. The major activation domains of Sp1 that have previously been shown to be essential to activation of promoters containing multiple Sp1 sites are required for activation of the LDL receptor promoter. Additionally, the C domain is also crucial. This slightly acidic ≃120-amino acid region is not required for efficient synergistic activation by multiple Sp1 sites or in combination with other recently characterized transcriptional regulators. We also show that Sp1 domain C is essential for full, enhanced DNA binding by SREBP-1. Taken together with other recent studies on the role of Sp1 in promoter activation, the current experiments suggest a unique combinatorial mechanism for promoter activation by two distinct transcription factors that are both essential to intracellular cholesterol homeostasis.

AB - Feedback regulation of transcription from the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene is fundamentally important in the maintenance of intracellular sterol balance. The region of the LDL receptor promoter responsible for normal sterol regulation contains adjacent binding sites for the ubiquitous transcription factor Sp1 and the cholesterol-sensitive sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). Interestingly, both are essential for normal sterol-mediated regulation of the promoter. The cooperation by Sp1 and SREBP-1 occurs at two steps in the activation process. SREBP-1 stimulates the binding of Sp1 to its adjacent recognition site in the promoter followed by enhanced stimulation of transcription after both proteins are bound to DNA. In the present report, we have defined the protein domains of Sp1 that are required for both synergistic DNA binding and transcriptional activation. The major activation domains of Sp1 that have previously been shown to be essential to activation of promoters containing multiple Sp1 sites are required for activation of the LDL receptor promoter. Additionally, the C domain is also crucial. This slightly acidic ≃120-amino acid region is not required for efficient synergistic activation by multiple Sp1 sites or in combination with other recently characterized transcriptional regulators. We also show that Sp1 domain C is essential for full, enhanced DNA binding by SREBP-1. Taken together with other recent studies on the role of Sp1 in promoter activation, the current experiments suggest a unique combinatorial mechanism for promoter activation by two distinct transcription factors that are both essential to intracellular cholesterol homeostasis.

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