Dog ownership and physical activity: A review of the evidence

Hayley E. Christian, Carri Westgarth, Adrian Bauman, Elizabeth A. Richards, Ryan E. Rhodes, Kelly R. Evenson, Joni A. Mayer, Roland J Thorpe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis. Results: Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60% of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking. Conclusions: Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)750-759
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Activity and Health
Volume10
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2013

Fingerprint

Ownership
Dogs
Walking
Meta-Analysis
Research
Longitudinal Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies

Keywords

  • Dog
  • Dog walking
  • Meta-analysis
  • Recreational activity
  • Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Christian, H. E., Westgarth, C., Bauman, A., Richards, E. A., Rhodes, R. E., Evenson, K. R., ... Thorpe, R. J. (2013). Dog ownership and physical activity: A review of the evidence. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10(5), 750-759.

Dog ownership and physical activity : A review of the evidence. / Christian, Hayley E.; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Mayer, Joni A.; Thorpe, Roland J.

In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, Vol. 10, No. 5, 07.2013, p. 750-759.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Christian, HE, Westgarth, C, Bauman, A, Richards, EA, Rhodes, RE, Evenson, KR, Mayer, JA & Thorpe, RJ 2013, 'Dog ownership and physical activity: A review of the evidence', Journal of Physical Activity and Health, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 750-759.
Christian HE, Westgarth C, Bauman A, Richards EA, Rhodes RE, Evenson KR et al. Dog ownership and physical activity: A review of the evidence. Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2013 Jul;10(5):750-759.
Christian, Hayley E. ; Westgarth, Carri ; Bauman, Adrian ; Richards, Elizabeth A. ; Rhodes, Ryan E. ; Evenson, Kelly R. ; Mayer, Joni A. ; Thorpe, Roland J. / Dog ownership and physical activity : A review of the evidence. In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 2013 ; Vol. 10, No. 5. pp. 750-759.
@article{9a40828a189847afba5f1dd85dd8644d,
title = "Dog ownership and physical activity: A review of the evidence",
abstract = "Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis. Results: Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60{\%} of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking. Conclusions: Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.",
keywords = "Dog, Dog walking, Meta-analysis, Recreational activity, Walking",
author = "Christian, {Hayley E.} and Carri Westgarth and Adrian Bauman and Richards, {Elizabeth A.} and Rhodes, {Ryan E.} and Evenson, {Kelly R.} and Mayer, {Joni A.} and Thorpe, {Roland J}",
year = "2013",
month = "7",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "10",
pages = "750--759",
journal = "Journal of Physical Activity and Health",
issn = "1543-3080",
publisher = "Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dog ownership and physical activity

T2 - A review of the evidence

AU - Christian, Hayley E.

AU - Westgarth, Carri

AU - Bauman, Adrian

AU - Richards, Elizabeth A.

AU - Rhodes, Ryan E.

AU - Evenson, Kelly R.

AU - Mayer, Joni A.

AU - Thorpe, Roland J

PY - 2013/7

Y1 - 2013/7

N2 - Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis. Results: Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60% of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking. Conclusions: Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.

AB - Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to nondog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was conducted (N = 29). Studies estimating the relationship between dog ownership and PA were grouped to create a pointestimate using meta-analysis. Results: Most studies were conducted in the last 5 years, were cross-sectional, and sampled adults from Australia or the United States. Approximately 60% of DO walked their dog, with a median duration and frequency of 160 minutes/week and 4 walks/week, respectively. Meta-analysis showed DO engage in more walking and PA than NDO and the effect sizes are small to moderate (d = 0.26 and d = 0.16, respectively). Three studies provided evidence of a directional relationship between dog ownership and walking. Conclusions: Longitudinal and interventional studies would provide stronger causal evidence for the relationship between dog ownership and PA. Improved knowledge of factors associated with dog walking will guide intervention research.

KW - Dog

KW - Dog walking

KW - Meta-analysis

KW - Recreational activity

KW - Walking

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84880067858&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84880067858&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 23006510

AN - SCOPUS:84880067858

VL - 10

SP - 750

EP - 759

JO - Journal of Physical Activity and Health

JF - Journal of Physical Activity and Health

SN - 1543-3080

IS - 5

ER -