Does vaginal delivery mitigate or strengthen the intergenerational association of overweight and obesity? Findings from the Boston Birth Cohort

Noel Mueller, G. Mao, Wendy Bennett, S. K. Hourigan, M. G. Dominguez-Bello, Lawrence Appel, Xiaobin Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background/Objectives:The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity.Subjects/Methods:We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother–child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2.0–8.0 years). We used logistic regression to examine the independent and joint associations of delivery mode (cesarean and vaginal delivery) and pre-pregnancy BMI with childhood overweight or obesity (age–sex-specific BMI ⩾85th percentile).Results:Of 1441 mothers, 961 delivered vaginally and 480 by cesarean. Compared with vaginally delivered children, cesarean delivered children had 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.8) times greater odds of becoming overweight or obese in childhood, after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education, air pollution exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain and birth weight. Compared with children born vaginally to normal weight mothers, after multivariable adjustment, odds of childhood overweight or obesity were highest in children born by cesarean delivery to obese mothers (odds ratio (OR): 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9–4.1), followed by children born by cesarean delivery to overweight mothers (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5–3.2), then children born vaginally to obese mothers (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.6) and finally children born vaginally to overweight mothers (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.3).Conclusions:In our racially and ethnically diverse cohort, cesarean delivery and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with childhood overweight or obesity. Needed now are prospective studies that integrate measures of the maternal and infant microbiome, and other potentially explanatory covariates, to elucidate the mechanisms driving this association and to explore whether exposure to vaginal microbiota in cesarean delivered newborns may be an innovative strategy to combat the intergenerational cycle of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.219.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Dec 20 2016

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Obesity
Mothers
Parturition
Microbiota
Confidence Intervals
Pregnancy
Odds Ratio
Newborn Infant
Social Adjustment
Air Pollution
Maternal Age
Adiposity
Birth Weight
Weight Gain
Publications
Body Mass Index
Logistic Models
Prospective Studies
Education
Weights and Measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{5f0b0295d6514291b1181c8a38dfb918,
title = "Does vaginal delivery mitigate or strengthen the intergenerational association of overweight and obesity? Findings from the Boston Birth Cohort",
abstract = "Background/Objectives:The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity.Subjects/Methods:We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother–child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2.0–8.0 years). We used logistic regression to examine the independent and joint associations of delivery mode (cesarean and vaginal delivery) and pre-pregnancy BMI with childhood overweight or obesity (age–sex-specific BMI ⩾85th percentile).Results:Of 1441 mothers, 961 delivered vaginally and 480 by cesarean. Compared with vaginally delivered children, cesarean delivered children had 1.4 (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.8) times greater odds of becoming overweight or obese in childhood, after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education, air pollution exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain and birth weight. Compared with children born vaginally to normal weight mothers, after multivariable adjustment, odds of childhood overweight or obesity were highest in children born by cesarean delivery to obese mothers (odds ratio (OR): 2.8; 95{\%} CI: 1.9–4.1), followed by children born by cesarean delivery to overweight mothers (OR: 2.2; 95{\%} CI: 1.5–3.2), then children born vaginally to obese mothers (OR: 1.8; 95{\%} CI: 1.3–2.6) and finally children born vaginally to overweight mothers (OR: 1.7; 95{\%} CI: 1.2–2.3).Conclusions:In our racially and ethnically diverse cohort, cesarean delivery and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with childhood overweight or obesity. Needed now are prospective studies that integrate measures of the maternal and infant microbiome, and other potentially explanatory covariates, to elucidate the mechanisms driving this association and to explore whether exposure to vaginal microbiota in cesarean delivered newborns may be an innovative strategy to combat the intergenerational cycle of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.219.",
author = "Noel Mueller and G. Mao and Wendy Bennett and Hourigan, {S. K.} and Dominguez-Bello, {M. G.} and Lawrence Appel and Xiaobin Wang",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1038/ijo.2016.219",
language = "English (US)",
journal = "International Journal of Obesity",
issn = "0307-0565",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Does vaginal delivery mitigate or strengthen the intergenerational association of overweight and obesity? Findings from the Boston Birth Cohort

AU - Mueller, Noel

AU - Mao, G.

AU - Bennett, Wendy

AU - Hourigan, S. K.

AU - Dominguez-Bello, M. G.

AU - Appel, Lawrence

AU - Wang, Xiaobin

PY - 2016/12/20

Y1 - 2016/12/20

N2 - Background/Objectives:The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity.Subjects/Methods:We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother–child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2.0–8.0 years). We used logistic regression to examine the independent and joint associations of delivery mode (cesarean and vaginal delivery) and pre-pregnancy BMI with childhood overweight or obesity (age–sex-specific BMI ⩾85th percentile).Results:Of 1441 mothers, 961 delivered vaginally and 480 by cesarean. Compared with vaginally delivered children, cesarean delivered children had 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.8) times greater odds of becoming overweight or obese in childhood, after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education, air pollution exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain and birth weight. Compared with children born vaginally to normal weight mothers, after multivariable adjustment, odds of childhood overweight or obesity were highest in children born by cesarean delivery to obese mothers (odds ratio (OR): 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9–4.1), followed by children born by cesarean delivery to overweight mothers (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5–3.2), then children born vaginally to obese mothers (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.6) and finally children born vaginally to overweight mothers (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.3).Conclusions:In our racially and ethnically diverse cohort, cesarean delivery and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with childhood overweight or obesity. Needed now are prospective studies that integrate measures of the maternal and infant microbiome, and other potentially explanatory covariates, to elucidate the mechanisms driving this association and to explore whether exposure to vaginal microbiota in cesarean delivered newborns may be an innovative strategy to combat the intergenerational cycle of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.219.

AB - Background/Objectives:The intergenerational association of obesity may be driven by mother-to-newborn transmission of microbiota at birth. Yet cesarean delivery circumvents newborn acquisition of vaginal microbiota, and has been associated with greater childhood adiposity. Here we examined the independent and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg m-2) and delivery mode with childhood overweight or obesity.Subjects/Methods:We prospectively followed 1441 racially and ethnically diverse mother–child dyads in the Boston Birth Cohort until age 5 years (range: 2.0–8.0 years). We used logistic regression to examine the independent and joint associations of delivery mode (cesarean and vaginal delivery) and pre-pregnancy BMI with childhood overweight or obesity (age–sex-specific BMI ⩾85th percentile).Results:Of 1441 mothers, 961 delivered vaginally and 480 by cesarean. Compared with vaginally delivered children, cesarean delivered children had 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–1.8) times greater odds of becoming overweight or obese in childhood, after adjustment for maternal age at delivery, race/ethnicity, education, air pollution exposure, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain and birth weight. Compared with children born vaginally to normal weight mothers, after multivariable adjustment, odds of childhood overweight or obesity were highest in children born by cesarean delivery to obese mothers (odds ratio (OR): 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9–4.1), followed by children born by cesarean delivery to overweight mothers (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.5–3.2), then children born vaginally to obese mothers (OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.6) and finally children born vaginally to overweight mothers (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2–2.3).Conclusions:In our racially and ethnically diverse cohort, cesarean delivery and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were associated with childhood overweight or obesity. Needed now are prospective studies that integrate measures of the maternal and infant microbiome, and other potentially explanatory covariates, to elucidate the mechanisms driving this association and to explore whether exposure to vaginal microbiota in cesarean delivered newborns may be an innovative strategy to combat the intergenerational cycle of obesity.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 20 December 2016; doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.219.

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