Does Supplementation of Diet With ‘Fish Oil’ Reduce Blood Pressure? A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials

Lawrence Appel, Edgar R Miller, Alexander J. Seidler, Paul K. Whelton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that supplementation of diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) PUFA), commonly referred to as fish oils, may reduce blood pressure (BP). However, most clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation have been of insufficient size to detect relevant BP changes. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of 17 controlled clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. To estimate an overall effect of ω-3 PUFA supplementation on BP, we calculated the net BP change in each trial (BP A in ω-3 PUFA group minus BP A in control group), which was then weighted according to the inverse of the variance. Results: In the 11 trials that enrolled normotensive individuals (n=728), ω-3 PUFA supplementation led to significant reductions of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in two and one trials, respectively. In the six studies that enrolled untreated hypertensives (n=291), significant reductions of SBP and DBP were present in two and four trials, respectively. Weighted, pooled estimates of SBP and DBP change (mm Hg) with 95% confidence intervals were —1.0 (—2.0 to 0.0) and —0.5 (—1.2 to +0.2) in the trials of normotensives, and —5.5 (—8.1 to —2.9) and —3.5 (—5.0 to —2.1) in the trials of untreated hypertensives. In 13 of 17 studies, trial duration was less than 3 months. Doses of ω-3 PUFA tended to be high (average dose >3 g/d in 11 trials). The magnitude of BP reduction was greatest at high BP but was not significantly associated with dose of ω-3 PUFA. Side effects, most commonly eructation and a fishy taste, occurred more frequently in ω-3 PUFA participants than in control participants (28% vs 13%, P

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1429-1438
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Internal Medicine
Volume153
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 28 1993

Fingerprint

Fish Oils
Controlled Clinical Trials
Meta-Analysis
Diet
Blood Pressure
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Eructation
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Clinical Trials
Confidence Intervals
Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

Cite this

Does Supplementation of Diet With ‘Fish Oil’ Reduce Blood Pressure? A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials. / Appel, Lawrence; Miller, Edgar R; Seidler, Alexander J.; Whelton, Paul K.

In: Archives of Internal Medicine, Vol. 153, No. 12, 28.06.1993, p. 1429-1438.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{d03f680dfc684fce8094fa3382fbec93,
title = "Does Supplementation of Diet With ‘Fish Oil’ Reduce Blood Pressure?: A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials",
abstract = "Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that supplementation of diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) PUFA), commonly referred to as fish oils, may reduce blood pressure (BP). However, most clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation have been of insufficient size to detect relevant BP changes. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of 17 controlled clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. To estimate an overall effect of ω-3 PUFA supplementation on BP, we calculated the net BP change in each trial (BP A in ω-3 PUFA group minus BP A in control group), which was then weighted according to the inverse of the variance. Results: In the 11 trials that enrolled normotensive individuals (n=728), ω-3 PUFA supplementation led to significant reductions of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in two and one trials, respectively. In the six studies that enrolled untreated hypertensives (n=291), significant reductions of SBP and DBP were present in two and four trials, respectively. Weighted, pooled estimates of SBP and DBP change (mm Hg) with 95{\%} confidence intervals were —1.0 (—2.0 to 0.0) and —0.5 (—1.2 to +0.2) in the trials of normotensives, and —5.5 (—8.1 to —2.9) and —3.5 (—5.0 to —2.1) in the trials of untreated hypertensives. In 13 of 17 studies, trial duration was less than 3 months. Doses of ω-3 PUFA tended to be high (average dose >3 g/d in 11 trials). The magnitude of BP reduction was greatest at high BP but was not significantly associated with dose of ω-3 PUFA. Side effects, most commonly eructation and a fishy taste, occurred more frequently in ω-3 PUFA participants than in control participants (28{\%} vs 13{\%}, P",
author = "Lawrence Appel and Miller, {Edgar R} and Seidler, {Alexander J.} and Whelton, {Paul K.}",
year = "1993",
month = "6",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1001/archinte.1993.00410120017003",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "153",
pages = "1429--1438",
journal = "JAMA Internal Medicine",
issn = "2168-6106",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Does Supplementation of Diet With ‘Fish Oil’ Reduce Blood Pressure?

T2 - A Meta-analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials

AU - Appel, Lawrence

AU - Miller, Edgar R

AU - Seidler, Alexander J.

AU - Whelton, Paul K.

PY - 1993/6/28

Y1 - 1993/6/28

N2 - Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that supplementation of diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) PUFA), commonly referred to as fish oils, may reduce blood pressure (BP). However, most clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation have been of insufficient size to detect relevant BP changes. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of 17 controlled clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. To estimate an overall effect of ω-3 PUFA supplementation on BP, we calculated the net BP change in each trial (BP A in ω-3 PUFA group minus BP A in control group), which was then weighted according to the inverse of the variance. Results: In the 11 trials that enrolled normotensive individuals (n=728), ω-3 PUFA supplementation led to significant reductions of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in two and one trials, respectively. In the six studies that enrolled untreated hypertensives (n=291), significant reductions of SBP and DBP were present in two and four trials, respectively. Weighted, pooled estimates of SBP and DBP change (mm Hg) with 95% confidence intervals were —1.0 (—2.0 to 0.0) and —0.5 (—1.2 to +0.2) in the trials of normotensives, and —5.5 (—8.1 to —2.9) and —3.5 (—5.0 to —2.1) in the trials of untreated hypertensives. In 13 of 17 studies, trial duration was less than 3 months. Doses of ω-3 PUFA tended to be high (average dose >3 g/d in 11 trials). The magnitude of BP reduction was greatest at high BP but was not significantly associated with dose of ω-3 PUFA. Side effects, most commonly eructation and a fishy taste, occurred more frequently in ω-3 PUFA participants than in control participants (28% vs 13%, P

AB - Background: Several lines of evidence suggest that supplementation of diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) PUFA), commonly referred to as fish oils, may reduce blood pressure (BP). However, most clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation have been of insufficient size to detect relevant BP changes. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of 17 controlled clinical trials of ω-3 PUFA supplementation. To estimate an overall effect of ω-3 PUFA supplementation on BP, we calculated the net BP change in each trial (BP A in ω-3 PUFA group minus BP A in control group), which was then weighted according to the inverse of the variance. Results: In the 11 trials that enrolled normotensive individuals (n=728), ω-3 PUFA supplementation led to significant reductions of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) in two and one trials, respectively. In the six studies that enrolled untreated hypertensives (n=291), significant reductions of SBP and DBP were present in two and four trials, respectively. Weighted, pooled estimates of SBP and DBP change (mm Hg) with 95% confidence intervals were —1.0 (—2.0 to 0.0) and —0.5 (—1.2 to +0.2) in the trials of normotensives, and —5.5 (—8.1 to —2.9) and —3.5 (—5.0 to —2.1) in the trials of untreated hypertensives. In 13 of 17 studies, trial duration was less than 3 months. Doses of ω-3 PUFA tended to be high (average dose >3 g/d in 11 trials). The magnitude of BP reduction was greatest at high BP but was not significantly associated with dose of ω-3 PUFA. Side effects, most commonly eructation and a fishy taste, occurred more frequently in ω-3 PUFA participants than in control participants (28% vs 13%, P

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027233392&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027233392&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1001/archinte.1993.00410120017003

DO - 10.1001/archinte.1993.00410120017003

M3 - Article

C2 - 8141868

AN - SCOPUS:0027233392

VL - 153

SP - 1429

EP - 1438

JO - JAMA Internal Medicine

JF - JAMA Internal Medicine

SN - 2168-6106

IS - 12

ER -