Objectives: Diarrhoea and pneumonia remain leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Little data is available to quantify the burden of comorbidity and the relationship between comorbid diarrhoea and pneumonia infections and mortality. We sought to quantify the relationship between comorbidity and risk of mortality among young children in two community-based studies conducted among South Asian children. Design: Secondary data analysis of two cohort studies. Participants: We identified two cohort studies of children under 3 years of age with prospective morbidity at least once every 2 weeks and ongoing mortality surveillance. Outcome measures: We calculated the mortality risk for diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) episodes and further quantified the risk of mortality when both diseases occur at the same time using a semiparametric additive model. Results: Among Nepali children, the estimated additional risk of mortality for comorbid diarrhoea and ALRI was 0.0014 (-0.0033, 0.0060). Among South Indian children, the estimated additional risk of mortality for comorbid diarrhoea and ALRI was 0.0032 (-0.0098, 0.0162). This risk is in addition to the single infection risk of mortality observed among these children. Conclusions: We observed an additional risk of mortality in children who experienced simultaneous diarrhoea and ALRI episodes though the CI was wide indicating low statistical support. Additional studies with adequate power to detect the increased risk of comorbidity on mortality are needed to improve confidence around the effect size estimate.
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