Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo

Julie M Nauroth, Ying Chun Liu, Mary Van Elswyk, Rebecca Bell, Eileen Bailey Hall, Gloria Chung, Linda M. Arterburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S™ (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T™ (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-384
Number of pages10
JournalLipids
Volume45
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Docosahexaenoic Acids
Edema
Oils
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
docosapentaenoic acid
In Vitro Techniques
Fish Oils
Cyclooxygenase 2
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Interleukin-1beta
Dinoprostone
Indomethacin
Lipopolysaccharides
Rats
Blood Cells
Esters
Blood
Fatty Acids
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

Keywords

  • DHA
  • DPAn-6
  • Inflammation
  • Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo. / Nauroth, Julie M; Liu, Ying Chun; Van Elswyk, Mary; Bell, Rebecca; Hall, Eileen Bailey; Chung, Gloria; Arterburn, Linda M.

In: Lipids, Vol. 45, No. 5, 05.2010, p. 375-384.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nauroth, Julie M ; Liu, Ying Chun ; Van Elswyk, Mary ; Bell, Rebecca ; Hall, Eileen Bailey ; Chung, Gloria ; Arterburn, Linda M. / Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo. In: Lipids. 2010 ; Vol. 45, No. 5. pp. 375-384.
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abstract = "The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S™ (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T™ (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications.",
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T1 - Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6) algal oils reduce inflammatory mediators in human peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro and paw edema in vivo

AU - Nauroth, Julie M

AU - Liu, Ying Chun

AU - Van Elswyk, Mary

AU - Bell, Rebecca

AU - Hall, Eileen Bailey

AU - Chung, Gloria

AU - Arterburn, Linda M.

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N2 - The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S™ (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T™ (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications.

AB - The anti-inflammatory activity associated with fish oil has been ascribed to the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of two DHA-rich algal oils, which contain little EPA, and determined the contribution of the constituent fatty acids, particularly DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In vitro, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was inhibited with apparent relative potencies of DPAn-6 (most potent) > DHA > EPA. In addition, DPAn-6 decreased intracellular levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and was a potent inhibitor of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. DHA/DPAn-6-rich DHA-S™ (DHA-S) algal oil was more effective at reducing edema in rats than DHA-rich DHA-T™ (DHA-T), suggesting that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory properties. Further in vivo analyses demonstrated that feeding DPAn-6 alone, provided as an ethyl ester, reduced paw edema to an extent approaching that of indomethacin and enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of DHA when given in combination. Together, these results demonstrate that DPAn-6 has anti-inflammatory activity and enhances the effect of DHA in vitro and in vivo. Thus, DHA-S algal oil may have potential for use in anti-inflammatory applications.

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