DNA topoisomerases: Harnessing and constraining energy to govern chromosome topology

Allyn J. Schoeffler, James M Berger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

DNA topoisomerases are a diverse set of essential enzymes responsible for maintaining chromosomes in an appropriate topological state. Although they vary considerably in structure and mechanism, the partnership between topoisomerases and DNA has engendered commonalities in how these enzymes engage nucleic acid substrates and control DNA strand manipulations. All topoisomerases can harness the free energy stored in supercoiled DNA to drive their reactions; some further use the energy of ATP to alter the topology of DNA away from an enzyme-free equilibrium ground state. In the cell, topoisomerases regulate DNA supercoiling and unlink tangled nucleic acid strands to actively maintain chromosomes in a topological state commensurate with particular replicative and transcriptional needs. To carry out these reactions, topoisomerases rely on dynamic macromolecular contacts that alternate between associated and dissociated states throughout the catalytic cycle. In this review, we describe how structural and biochemical studies have furthered our understanding of DNA topoisomerases, with an emphasis on how these complex molecular machines use interfacial interactions to harness and constrain the energy required to manage DNA topology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)41-101
Number of pages61
JournalQuarterly Reviews of Biophysics
Volume41
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2008
Externally publishedYes

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DNA Topoisomerases
Chromosomes
Nucleic Acids
DNA
Enzymes
Superhelical DNA
Adenosine Triphosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics

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DNA topoisomerases : Harnessing and constraining energy to govern chromosome topology. / Schoeffler, Allyn J.; Berger, James M.

In: Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics, Vol. 41, No. 1, 02.2008, p. 41-101.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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