Diurnal salivary cortisol is associated with body mass index and waist circumference

The multiethnic study of atherosclerosis

Sherita Hill Golden, Shivam Champaneri, Xiaoqiang Xu, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Alain G. Bertoni, Teresa Seeman, Amy S. DeSantis, Ana Diez Roux, Sandi Shrager

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. Design and Methods: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65 6 9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30-min postawakening), early decline (30 min to 2-h postawakening), late decline (2-h postawakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. Results: For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (P <0.05), AUC during awakening rise, and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (P <0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, β-blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy, and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalObesity
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2013

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Waist Circumference
Hydrocortisone
Atherosclerosis
Body Mass Index
Obesity
Area Under Curve
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Adiposity
Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Hispanic Americans
Social Class
Population
Smoking
Steroids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Diurnal salivary cortisol is associated with body mass index and waist circumference : The multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. / Golden, Sherita Hill; Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi.

In: Obesity, Vol. 21, No. 1, 01.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Golden, SH, Champaneri, S, Xu, X, Carnethon, MR, Bertoni, AG, Seeman, T, DeSantis, AS, Roux, AD & Shrager, S 2013, 'Diurnal salivary cortisol is associated with body mass index and waist circumference: The multiethnic study of atherosclerosis', Obesity, vol. 21, no. 1. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20047
Golden, Sherita Hill ; Champaneri, Shivam ; Xu, Xiaoqiang ; Carnethon, Mercedes R. ; Bertoni, Alain G. ; Seeman, Teresa ; DeSantis, Amy S. ; Roux, Ana Diez ; Shrager, Sandi. / Diurnal salivary cortisol is associated with body mass index and waist circumference : The multiethnic study of atherosclerosis. In: Obesity. 2013 ; Vol. 21, No. 1.
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AU - Xu, Xiaoqiang

AU - Carnethon, Mercedes R.

AU - Bertoni, Alain G.

AU - Seeman, Teresa

AU - DeSantis, Amy S.

AU - Roux, Ana Diez

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N2 - Objective: Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. Design and Methods: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65 6 9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30-min postawakening), early decline (30 min to 2-h postawakening), late decline (2-h postawakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. Results: For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (P <0.05), AUC during awakening rise, and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (P <0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, β-blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy, and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates.

AB - Objective: Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. Design and Methods: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65 6 9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30-min postawakening), early decline (30 min to 2-h postawakening), late decline (2-h postawakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. Results: For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (P <0.05), AUC during awakening rise, and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (P <0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, β-blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy, and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Conclusions: Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates.

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