Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and sleep disturbance (e.g., insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing) are prevalent conditions among older adults that are associated with cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Importantly, disturbed sleep is associated with alterations in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism, and may increase the risk of T2D, and T2D-related complications (e.g., pain, nocturia) can negatively affect sleep. Despite these associations, little is known about how interactions between T2D and sleep disturbance might alter cognitive trajectories or the pathological changes that underlie dementia. Here, we review links among T2D, sleep disturbance, cognitive decline and dementia-including preclinical and clinical AD-and identify gaps in the literature, that if addressed, could have significant implications for the prevention of poor cognitive outcomes.
- Alzheimer's disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism