Distress tolerance and early adolescent externalizing and internalizing symptoms: The moderating role of gender and ethnicity

Stacey B. Daughters, Elizabeth K. Reynolds, Laura MacPherson, Christopher W. Kahler, Carla K. Danielson, Michael Zvolensky, C. W. Lejuez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A large body of research has examined the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in childhood and early adolescence. Notably, there is significant concomitant impairment associated with early adolescent symptomatology, as well as association of these symptoms with future development of psychopathology, poor physical health, self-destructive thoughts and behaviors, criminal behavior, and HIV risk behaviors. Drawing on negative reinforcement theory, the current study sought to examine the potential role of distress tolerance, defined as the ability to persist in goal-directed activity while experiencing emotional distress, as a potential mechanism that may underlie both internalizing and externalizing symptoms among 231 Caucasian and African American youth (M age = 10.9 years; 45.5% female; 54.5% Caucasian ethnicity). A series of regressions resulted in significant moderated relationships, such that low distress tolerance conferred increased risk for alcohol use among Caucasians, delinquent behavior among African Americans, and internalizing symptoms among females. Clinical implications, including the potential role of negative reinforcement models in early intervention with young adolescents, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-205
Number of pages8
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Volume47
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Alcohol
  • Distress tolerance
  • Externalizing behavior
  • Internalizing symptoms
  • Negative reinforcement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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